Satellite Communications

Better Essays
History of Satellite Communications The first idea of satellite communication came from an article in 1945 named Wireless World, where Author C. Clarke described the use of manned satellites in 24 hour orbits to distribute television programs. However, the first person to carefully evaluate the technical and financial aspects of such a venture was John R. Pierce of Bell Telephone Laboratories (Whalen, n.d.).
In a 1954 speech and 1955 article, Pierce described the usefulness of a communications "mirror" in space, a medium-orbit "repeater" and a 24-hour-orbit "repeater." In comparing the communications capacity of a satellite, which he estimated the capacity at 1,000 simultaneous telephone calls, and the capacity of the first trans-atlantic telephone cable, which could carry 36 simultaneous telephone calls at a cost of 30-50 million dollars, Pierce wondered if a satellite would be worth a billion dollars (Whalen, n.d.).
By the middle of 1961, RCA had a contract with NASA to build, a 4000 mile high, medium-orbit, active communications satellite called RELAY, AT&T was working on its own medium-orbit satellite called TELSTAR, and Hughes Aircraft Company had an exclusive contract to build a 24-hour orbit, 20,000 mile high satellite, called SYNCOM. By 1964, two TELSTARs, two RELAYs, and two SYNCOMs had operated successfully in space. The transponder technology used by AT&T in the TELSTAR I satellite is current technology in use today (Whalen, n.d.). On April 6, 1965, a new company called COMSAT launched its first satellite, EARLY BIRD, from Cape Canaveral beginning Global satellite communications. The EARLY BIRD satellite provided almost 10 times the capacity of submarine telephone cables for almost 1/10th the price. Satellites are still competitive with cable for point-to-point communications, but the future advantage may lie with fiber-optic cable (Whalen, n.d.).

How Satellites Work
Orbit
First, as one would guess, satellites are launched into orbit.



References: Boeing (2002). What is a satellite. Retrieved October 24, 2005 from: http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/bss/what_is_a_satellite.pdf Whalen, David, J. (n.d.). Communication satellites: making the global village possible. Retrieved October 24, 2005 from: http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/satcomhistory.html Bergeron, Bryan P. (1990). A laser-communications primer. Retreived October 26, 2005 from: http://www.arrl.org/tis/info/pdf/9009019.pdf F.C.C. (2005). Voice over internet protocol. Retrieved October 26, 2005 from: http://www.fcc.gov/voip/

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Satellite Communication

    • 7242 Words
    • 29 Pages

    SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS - AN OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION The outer space has always fascinated people on the earth and communication through space evolved as an offshoot of ideas for space travel. The earliest idea of using artificial satellites for communications is found in a science fiction Brick Moon by Edward Evert Hale, published in 1869-70. While the early fictional accounts of satellite and space communications bear little resemblance to the technology as it exists…

    • 7242 Words
    • 29 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Satellite Communications

    • 43336 Words
    • 174 Pages

    1 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION – AN INTRODUCTION Contents 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Basics 1.3 Applications of Satellites o Weather Forecasting o Radio and TV Broadcast o Military o Navigation o Global Telephone o Connecting Remote Areas o Global Mobile Communication 1.4 Frequency Allocation of Satellites 1.5 Types of Orbits o GEO o LEO o MEO o Sun Synchronous Orbit o Hohmann Transfer Orbit o Prograde Orbit o Retrograde Orbit o Polar Orbits 1.6 Examples o INTELSAT o U.S. Domsats o Polar Orbiting Satellites…

    • 43336 Words
    • 174 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Satellite Communication

    • 71246 Words
    • 285 Pages

    Satellite Communication Engineering Michael O. Kolawole Jolade Pty. Ltd. Melbourne, Australia Marcel Dekker, Inc. TM New York • Basel Copyright © 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ISBN: 0-8247-0777-X This book is printed on acid-free paper. Headquarters Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540 Eastern Hemisphere Distribution Marcel Dekker AG Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896…

    • 71246 Words
    • 285 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    Satellite Communication

    • 1398 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Satellite communication, in telecommunications, is the use of artificial satellites to provide communication links between various points on Earth. Satellite communications play a vital role in the global telecommunications system. Approximately 2,000 artificial satellites orbiting Earth relay analog and digital signals carrying voice, video, and data to and from one or many locations worldwide. Satellite communication has two main components: the ground segment, which consists of fixed or mobile…

    • 1398 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    In 1945 Arthur C. Clarke wrote an article entitled "The Future of World Communications" for the magazine Wireless World. This article, which the editors renamed "Extra-Terrestrial Relays", was published in the October issue. In it Clarke described the properties of the geostationary orbit, a circular orbit in the equatorial plane of the earth such that a satellite appears to hover over a fixed point on the equator. The period of revolution is equal to the period of rotation of the earth…

    • 12765 Words
    • 52 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Recent Trends in Wireless Radio and Satellite Communication Gori Shankar1, Rajiv Kumar2 Suresh Gyan Vihar University, M.Tech (VLSI) 1 ,Jaipur Engg. College, B.Tech (ECE) 2 gssharma1951@gmail.com,rajivresnick@gmail.com Abstract- In this paper we discussed satellite and radio communication links. Satellites have evolutionized communication. Satellite and radio communication has served mankind in many…

    • 1328 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    “DEFENCE RESEARCH &DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION” (Snow And Avalanche Study Establishment) Ministry Of Defence,Govt.of India PRESENTED BY: SOURAB SALOTRA ECE-7TH SEMESTER Univ.roll no - 6810407662 Department of Electronics and Electrical communication Indo Global College Of Engineering,Abhipur Mohali ACKNOWLEDGEMENT When emotions are profound, words sometimes are not sufficient to express our thanks and gratitude. With this thought, I express my gratitude and indebtedness to all those…

    • 16992 Words
    • 68 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    ACCESS CONTROL PERFORMANCE IN SATELLITE COMMUNICATION ABSTRACT MAC protocols are designed to coordinate the transmission of packets, retransmission of damaged packets, and resolution of collisions among stations during a contention period . The MAC protocols include fixed assignment protocol, demand assignment protocol, random access protocol, reservation protocol, hybrid of reservation protocol and random access protocols and adaptive protocols. Satellite communication systems have traditionally…

    • 3639 Words
    • 15 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Satellites

    • 1895 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Satellite A satellite is defined as any object that orbits any other object. Satellites can be celestial, such as a moon orbiting a planet in the solar system, or a planet in the solar system orbiting the sun. Satellites can also be man-made. Man-made satellites are typically launched into outer space from earth to collect data, photos and other information about Earth and all the many things that exist around it. FLOW OF CONTENTS…

    • 1895 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    satellites

    • 1358 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Communication Satellites Introduction Communications Satellites have been around since 1958. A communications satellite is a spacecraft that orbits the Earth and relays messages, radio, telephone and television signals. Stations on the ground, called earth stations, transmit signals to the satellite, which then relays the signal to other earth stations. As a newer form of communications, communications satellites are very useful in bringing the people in the world together. Communications between…

    • 1358 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Better Essays