Rizal

Topics: Jean Piaget, Developmental psychology, Theory of cognitive development Pages: 79 (25435 words) Published: April 1, 2013
Principles of Human Growth and Development
There is a sequence to human growth and development. Just as you need to crawl and then walk before you run, all growth follows a pattern. Human development looks at five areas. They are physical growth, motor skills, language, cognition, and social and emotional skills. Each area represents a stage of rapid change in physical and cognitive growth, with important milestones to pass before moving ahead. The patterns of growth and development are usually the same for all children. However, the rate of growth and development can vary. There are accepted age ranges during which particular skills can develop, and for some children, one area may develop more quickly than another. A child may develop communication skills quickly, but stay uncoordinated with poor motor skills for a time. A different child may excel at sports, but have poor social skills. Using general knowledge of human growth and development helps support the stage the child is in. Human development is a lifelong process of physical, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional growth and change. In the early stages of life from babyhood to childhood, childhood to adolescence, and adolescence to adulthood- enormous changes take place. Throughout the process, each person develops attitudes and values that guide choices, relationships, and understanding. Development, therefore, encompasses all of the changes (quantitative and qualitative) that a person may go throughout his lifetime. Growth or physical growth is referred to as a quantitative change. This change includes change in height, weight, and change in proportion. Other authors include change in the quantity of the person‘s vocabulary. Development is a qualitative change which may include increase in the skills and complexity of function resulting to increased specialization. It is the gradual and orderly unfolding of the characteristics of the succession stages of growth. It is a progressive series of changes that occur as a result of maturation and experience. This means that learning goes with development. For example, when a child experiences or learns a new vocabulary, he is said to have developed his language ability. Growth, development, and learning are intertwined. Generally, they go together as the person accumulates years in his life. There are five (5) established aspects of human development that are inherent in every individual. Although these are common to human development, differences with regard to how an individual advances exist. 1. Physical development – As physical development proceeds, the child acquires various skills such as: a) motor skills which require coordination between muscles and brain. This often require a great deal of practice before becoming automatic. b) gross motor skills use the large muscles of the arms, legs, hips, and

back such as when sitting, walking, climbing, kicking a ball, etc. c) fine manipulative skills – involve the coordination of the smaller muscles of the hands and fingers for pointing, drawing, using spoon and fork, writing, etc. 2. Intellectual Development refers to how a person perceives, thinks and gains, understanding of his world through the interaction of genetic and learned factors. Among the areas of intellectual development are information processing, intelligence, language development and memory. 3. Personality and Social Development is the development of the organized pattern of behaviors and attitudes that makes a person distinctive. This occurs by the ongoing intervention of temperament, character, and environment. 4. Moral Development. Piaget concluded that children begin in a heteronymous stage of moral reasoning, characterized by a strict adherence to rules and duties and obedience to authority. This means that children view right or wrong according to their relative social relationships with older people. They expect that punishments automatically follow acts of wrongdoing. 5. Spiritual Development...

References: http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/emotionaldisturbance
Alban-Metcalfe,J. ,& Alban-Metcalfe, J. (2001). Managing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in inclusive classroom: Practical strategies for teacher. London: David Fulton.http://www.projectiris.org/litt_ADHD.html Antonak, R., & Livneh, H. (1988). The measurement of attitudes toward people with disabilities: Methods, psychometrics, and scales. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. Baker, J. et al (2008). The teacher-student relationship as a developmental context for children with internalizing or externalizing behavior problems. School Psychology Quarterly, Vol 23(1), Mar 2008, 3-15.
http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/education_ and _treatment_of_children/v034/34.4.chfouleas.html Bateman, D. and Bateman, C.F. (2002). What Does a Principal Need To Know about Inclusion? ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Arlington VA. http://www.ericdigests.org/2003-5/inclusion.htm Burnette, J. (1996). Including Children with Disabilities in General Education Classrooms: From Policy to Practice. ACCESS ERIC, Rockville, MD. http://zazna.com/GIYA4feU29/business.-management-.-marketing.-inclusion-inregular-classrooms-of-students-with-disabilities.html Center for Mental Health Schools (1998). Least Intervention Needed: Toward Appropriate Inclusion of Students with Special Needs. An Introductory Packet. Corbett J. (2000). Theories of Inclusive Education: A Student Guide. London: Chapman. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031296895 CSIE (2000). The Integration Charter. Center for Studies on Inclusive Education. Department of Education Employment (DfEE) (1998). Excellence for All Children: Meeting Special Educational Needs (The Green Paper) London: Department for Education and Employment Publications Center. http://www.academicjournals.org/err/pdf/pdf%202009/apr/elzein.pdf
Florida Children 's Forum (2002). Understanding Inclusion and the American Disabilities Act. Florida 's Statewide Inclusion Advisory Council. Remington Green Circle Tallahassee, FL. http://www.centraldirectory.org/uploads/ACF21C4.pdf Hannah, M. E., & Pliner, S. (1983). Teacher attitudes toward handicapped children:Revised. School Psychology Review, 12(1), 17-23. http://www.nasponline.org/publications/spr/abstract.aspx?ID=552 Jenkinson J (1997). Mainstream or Special –educating students with disabilities. Routledge, UK. http://www.academicjournals.org/err/pdf/pdf%202009/apr/elzein.pdf
LDAA(2005). Learning Disabilities Association http://www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/parents/ld_basics/symptoms.asp
of
America.
Mitchell, D. (2008). What really works in special and inclusive education: Using evidence-based teaching strategies. London-New York: Routledge. http://dspace.maktabat-online.com:8080/en/handle/123456789/3016 Mittler P. (2000). Working towards inclusive education: Social Context. Futton.http://www.amazon.co.uk/WORKING-TOWARDS-INCLUSIVEEDUCATION-Contexts/dp/1853466980 London:
Moore, C., Gilbreath, D. and Maiuri, F. (1998). Educating Children with Disabilities in General Education Classrooms: A Summary of the Research. University of Oregon. http://www.indianamentalhealthneeds.org/files/Education_LRE_EducatingStudent swithDisabilitiesinGenEd.pdf National Association for the Education of Young Children (1997). The Benefits of Inclusive Education: Making it Work. Washington, DC. http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content3/inclusion.p.k12.3.html Ochiai T. & Jimenez L.P. (2002). Pathways for inclusion in Japan. Journal of Asia Pacific Special Education, 2(2), 85-106. http://www.cehs.wright.edu/~prenick/Summer_fall04/Inclusion%20vs.htm Office of the National Education Commission. (2009). Summary report: 9 years of educational reform (1999-2008). Bangkok: VTC Communication Ltd. http://www.wholeschooling.net/Journal_of_Whole_Schooling/articles/61%20Pennee%20&%20Surawee.doc Peters, R. S. (2007). A study of the attitudes of elementary teachers toward exceptional children of the mainstream. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 5396A.http://books.google.co.th/books/about/A_Study_of_the_Attitudes_of_Eleme ntary_T.html?id=UeYscAAACAAJ&redir_esc=y Rudd, F. (2002). Grasping the Promise of Inclusion. Palm Springs, CS. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERIC ExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED471855&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&acc no=ED471855 Salend, S. J. (2008). Creating inclusive classrooms: Effective and reflective practices (6th ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Pearson Education. http://www.wholeschooling.net/Journal_of_Whole_Schooling/articles/61%20Pennee%20&%20Surawee.doc Salend, S. J. (1998). Effective mainstreaming: Creating inclusive classrooms (3rd. edition), OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Saludes, M. and Dante, A. (2006). The knowledge and perceptions on learning disabilities in the cities of Region XI of the Philippines and a region of New York, U.S.A. Master‘s Thesis: Holy Cross of Davao College, Inc., Philippines.
Scruggs, T.E. & Mastropieri, M.(2001). Promoting inclusion in secondary classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly, 9/22/2001. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1593616?uid=3739136&uid=2&uid=70 &uid=4&sid=21100829079251 Stewart R., et.al (2001). General education and special education preserves teachers‘ attitudes towards inclusion. Preventing school failure. http://www.web9.epnet.com/citation.asp and http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERIC ExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ641046&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_ Yacoub, Y. (2000). Higher education and manpower planning in Lebanon. http://www.academicjournals.org/err/pdf/pdf%202009/apr/elzein.pdf
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Rizal Essay
  • Jose Rizal Essay
  • Poems of Rizal Essay
  • Qualities Of Rizal Essay
  • Rizal Family Summary Essay
  • RESORTS VENUE RIZAL Essay
  • Essay about Rizal
  • Essay on Rizal

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free