The Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas
Born in Italy, Thomas Aquinas was one of the most educated men of his time. Aquinas, whose family were noble, was educated as a monk and later continued his education at the University of Naples followed by the University of Paris where he studied the ancient Greek thought of Aristotle. Educated in both philosophy and theology,Aquinas is thought to be one of the most important philosophers of Catholicism. One ofAquinas’s most influential writings is the Summa Theologica. In this document, Aquinas clarifies four questions concerning the Church: Whether it can be demonstrated t Godexist? Whether it is always sinfuhatl to wage war? Whether it is lawful for Clerics and Bishops to fight? And whether it is lawful to fight on holy days? He answers each question thoroughly but indecisively; however, when he answers the second question it seems his conclusion have been manipulated in ways that can benefit the church without making them look double sided with their teachings. The second question is: Whether it is always sinful to wage war? In this question Aquinas states in his objection (1), “It would seem that it is always sinful to wage war because punishment is not inflicted except for sin. Now those who wage war are threatened by our Lord with punishment; therefore, all wars are unlawful.” (172)
However, he justifies the act of war by giving three necessities. The first he mentions is only an authority of the sovereign can order a war to be waged. This reply in itself is a contradiction to the quotation above in the way that he states that wars are justified if you have power and authority. He first states that all wars are sinful, but if it is justified it is not a sin; however, I feel that just because one has authority over others, this shouldn’t mean that he is excused from sin because of his stature; thus his reply is bios.
The second necessity is...
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