Augmented reality (AR) is a term for a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one. Augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Artificial information about the environment and its objects can be overlaid on the real world. Augmented Reality
Supplements the real world with virtual
(computer-generated) objects that appear to coexist in the same space as the real world. AR offers an intuitive and natural means for people to navigate and work effectively in the real world -links real and virtual worlds. Combines real and virtual objects in a real environment−Runs interactively, and in real time−Registers real and virtual objects with each other. In the research article Recent Advances in Augmented Reality define augmented reality (AR) as systems with three characteristics: 1. Combine real and virtual objects in a real environment;
2. Runs and real time interactively
3. Registers in 3D
AR allows the user to be able to see the real world with virtual objects superimposed with the real world. Such technology may consist of a display device such as a mobile phone, PDA or a head-mounted display that shows the real physical environment on which it overlays digital information.
The figure shown - Components of an Augmented Reality System
Lanier’s VPL DataGlove and Azuma et al (2001) demonstrate that AR technology has not only been limited to head-worn displays but also includes handheld displays which may also include flat LCD screens for display. Today handheld display augmented reality is already being developed for new smartphones whose applications are further being developed for consumer markets. In addition augmented reality applications also cover a projection display which as the name suggests projects virtual information on the augmented object or the augmented information is projected to the real life context. (Zhou et al 2008).
In recent years the more advanced computer hardware has enabled the virtual and augmented reality applications to become more practically useful and numerous. (e.g. immersive architectural modeling, simulations for vehicle driving/training) (Peng and Leu 2005, Cruz-Neira, 1998).
1962 "Sketchpad“ dissertation
1965 "Ultimate Display"
Real and synthetic objects coexist
1968 “Head Mounted Display” AR System (MIT, Harvard, Univ. of Utah) Graphics (vector mono)
HMD (optical see-through)
Tracker (mech. on head).Moore’s law
Faster computers and graphics generators
HMD, LCD, OLED, laser,...
Engineering, algorithms, and infrastructure
Advanced tracking systems –GPS/RF, optical/IR, ultrasonic, magnetic, vision, AR system components have made transition from laboratory to commercial domain. Customers want it! Application
Azuma (1997) points to several application areas which include:
Augmented reality has the potential to help medical personnel during surgical procedures. The technology is likely to be helpful in the collection of 3-D datasets through use of non invasive sensors which can be rendered in real time. This can help to visualize the real patient and the area that needs surgery. The technology can...
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