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Resistance to Spanish imposed institutions

Topics: Philippines, Provinces of the Philippines / Pages: 7 (930 words) / Published: Jul 16th, 2015
RESISTANCE TO SPANISHIMPOSED INSTITUTIONS



The Spanish institutions of taxation, forced labor, galleon trade, indulto de comercio, and monopolies were persistent irritants that cause Filipino to revolt..

AMONG THE MAJOR REBELLIONS
BELONGING TO THIS CLASS WERE:
Late 16th century led by Magalat
 The Sumoroy
 The Caraga revolts in the 17th century
 The revolt of Magtañaga, Palaris and Silang
 Samal mutiny in the 18th century
 Ambaristo revolt in the first decade of the
19th century


REVOLT LED BY MAGALAT


Chief of Tuguegarao( Cagayan), with his brother, the opposition to the illicite tribute coolection motivated the Cagayanos to revolt. 

Magalat’s revolt was finally subdued when some paid hirelings of the Spaniards from his own camp dastardly assassinated him.

REBELLION IN CARAGA(1629-31)


Inflamed by the unjust collection of tribute in kind 

Boatloads of rice were commandeered in the encomiendas for a 30- year period, with the town parish priest acting as official tribute collector 1649-1650, PALAPAG, SAMAR


A son of Babaylan, Juan Ponce Sumodoy, and a datu from Catubig, Pedro Caamug, headed an uprising that spread to other coastal towns of Samar as far as the Bikol regions,
Leyte, cantral Visayas, and northern
Mindanao
 This

was the reaction to GOVERNOR DIEGO
FAJARDO’s offer of shifting recruitment of the irksome polos y servicios personales from Luzon to Visayas for the first time, to relieve the
Tagalogs in building galleons and warships in
Cavite.



The Visayans vehemently reacted to this kind of forced labor in Luzon which separated them from their beloved families and their farms.  The

revolt was expeditiously contained by using the Christian Lutaws (Samal) under Francisco
Ugbo and Alonso Macombon, who arrived in
Palapag in May 1650.
 By early July, they reached Sumodoy’s camp atop a mesa (tableland), captured his mother, dragged her and threw her over a precipice.
 Sumodoy’s head was presented to the alcalde mayor by two of his former followers.

18TH CENTURY
Major uprisings occurred mostly in northern and central Luzon, spilling over towards the
Tagalog regions.
 In Cagayan, the poverty- stricken life of the farmers was made more despairing due to a series of lean rice and corn yields caused by migratory locusts which wreaked havoc on the province during the first decade of the
18th century.


Adding to their seemingly endless sufferings was the onerous exploitation of the alcalde mayor with his arbitrary exaction of tribute of forced laborers.
 Infuriated by the worsening economic situation, “General” Luis Magtañaga, chief of
Malaueg, assisted by an affluent chief of
Tuao, Tomas Sinaguingan, led the Itawis and
Gaddangs in the middle Cagayan area to rise up in arms against the authorities in 1718.
 Both as in the other previous risings,
Magtañaga’s revolt failed.


1719
Pangasinan witnessed a revolt led by Juan
Caragay, galvanizad by the tyrranical acts of the alcalde mayor who used force in the unlawful collection of tribute and draft labor
 Caragay was successful in murdering the provincial governor
 Caragay was slain later by the loyal reinforcements from Dagupan


LATE 1750S
Pangasinan experienced untold socioeconomic restiveness as a consequence of destructive floods and poor harvest, which was further aggravated by the personal excesses of then the alcalde mayor, Joquin de Gamboa.
 The regular tribute of one real forte was increased ½ reales more.


JUAN DE LA CRUZ PALARIS (1762)SAN CARLOS CITY
Spearheaded a rebellion against Gamboa’s personal excesses, which easily spread to the other major towns of the province.
 In the end, Palaris was betrayed by his own sister to the town gobernadorcillo and brought to Lingayan where he was eventually hanged. 

DIEGO SILANG
Vehemently opposed the exaction of the commun, drafting of polistas and other unscrupulous practices of the new alcalde mayor  Silang headed the revolt in December 1762
 Killed by Miguel Vicos. An ex- silanista and his ex- confidant
 The killer nervously fired a musket through
Silang’s back in the afternoon of May 1763,
Silang dying in his wife’s arms.


MARIA JOSEFA GABRIELLA DE SILANG
The first woman to lead a revolt in the
Philippines
 Executed in Vigan, on September 20, 1763


LAGUTAO REVOLT (1785)
SAMAL MUTINY (1787)
AMBARISTO OR BASI REVOLT (1807)

LAGUTAO REVOLT
As an overt reaction to the implementation of the estanco ( tobacco monopoly), resistance broke out in the upper Cagayan, as in some lowland areas in the Philippines
 On the last day of March 1785, Lagutao presented himself as their liberator from the
Spanish impositions of the tobacco monolpoly, the tribute and the tithes which had been progressively increased through the years.




As a counter- offensive, the authorities mustered 300 men, reinforced by 2000 auxiliaries from Bayombong, Bagabag and
Carig, under the command of Mateo Cabal of
Cagayan, who pursued Lagutao’s party, and in the struggle killed the leader, his brother, son-in-law, and eleven others, capturing besides 81 men, women, youths, and children. SAMAL, BATAAN
A mutiny broke out led by Lt. Andres
Magtanong and Sub-Lt. Francisco Malibiran, members of the town militia, as reaction to the introduction of the estanco in 1787.
 They killed the teniente visitador and the tobacco monopoly guards.




Quickly subdued, the rebel’s house were torn down, and the sites plowed and strewn with salt so that no living things would ever grow where once stood the “traitors” properties, reminiscent of the “conspiracy of the maharlikas” two hundred years before.

AMBARISTO OR BASI REVOLT
Oppresive monopoly of spirituous liquors introduces in 1786, which include the control of making the basi (fermented sugarcane juice).  Also known the “Ambaristo” revolt after the bravest right-hand man of the leader, Pedro
Mateo of Piddig, the revolt failed, with the rebels summarily hanged and their bodies mutilated. 

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