Molds are fungi that are found everywhere – both indoors and outdoors all year round. The terms fungi and mold are often used interchangeably, but mold is actually a type of fungi. Concern about indoor exposure to mold has increased along with public awareness that exposure to mold can cause a variety of adverse health effects. There are many thousands of species of mold and most if not all of the mold found indoors comes from outdoor sources. It seems likely to grow and become a problem only when there is water damage, high humidity, or dampness. Molds produce and release millions of spores small enough to be air-, water-, or insect-borne. They can also produce toxic agents known as mycotoxins. Spores and mycotoxins can have negative effects on human health. For those people who are affected by mold exposures there can be a wide variation in how they react. People at greatest risk of health effects are individuals with allergies, asthma, sinusitis, or other respiratory conditions, as well as infants and children, elderly people, and pregnant women. In addition, individuals with a weakened immune system are at risk. Mold is addressed in specific standards for the general industry, shipyard employment, and the construction industry. mold
A large group of fungi (like penicillium) that cause mold (as on bread or cheese). A common trigger for allergies. Cymbopogon (family: Poaceae) represents an important genus of about 120 species that grows in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. On account of their diverse uses in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and flavor, and agriculture industries. Cymbopogon grasses are cultivated on large scale, especially in tropics and subtropics ( Akhila, 2010). Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf possesses strong lemony odor due to its high content of the aldehyde citral, which has two geometric isomers, geranial (citral a) and neral (citral b) ( Shahi et al., 2005). Normally, one isomer does not occur without the other. In addition to citral, the essential oil of Cymbopogon spp. consists of small quantities of geraniol, geranyl acetate and monoterpene olefins, such as limonene (in C. flexuosus) and myrcene (in C. citratus) ( Weiss, 1997). C. citratus is commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of nervous and gastrointestinal disturbances, and as antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, diuretic and sedative ( Santin et al., 2009). Studies on extracts from C. citratus leaves have demonstrated anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities ( Oloyede, 2009, Pereira et al., 2009 and Matasyoh et al., 2011). Cymbopogon citratus,(Lemon grass) is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are essential oils that contain Citral α, Citral β, Nerol Geraniol, Citronellal, Terpinolene, Geranyl acetate, Myrecene and Terpinol Methylheptenone. The plant also contains reported phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which consist of luteolin, isoorientin 2’-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin. Studies indicate that Cymbopogon citratus possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Various other effects like antimalarial, antimutagenicity, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, hypoglycemic and neurobehaviorial have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Cymbopogon is a genus of about 55 species, which are indigenous in tropical and semi-tropical areas of Asia and are cultivated in South and Central America, Africa and other tropical countries. These are tufted...
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