Research Paper

Topics: Cloud computing, Grid computing, Workflow Pages: 12 (5692 words) Published: April 15, 2014
Journal of Computing and Information Technology - CIT 16, 2008, 4, 235–246 doi:10.2498 /cit.1001391

235

Cloud Computing – Issues,
Research and Implementations
Mladen A. Vouk
Department of Computer Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

“Cloud” computing – a relatively recent term, builds on decades of research in virtualization, distributed computing, utility computing, and more recently networking, web and software services. It implies a service oriented

architecture, reduced information technology overhead
for the end-user, great flexibility, reduced total cost of
ownership, on-demand services and many other things.
This paper discusses the concept of “cloud” computing,
some of the issues it tries to address, related research
topics, and a “cloud” implementation available today.

based on Virtual Computing Laboratory (VCL)
technology. VCL has been in production use at
NC State University since 2004, and is a suitable
vehicle for dynamic implementation of almost
any current “cloud” computing solution. Section 4 discusses “cloud”-related research and engineering challenges. Section 5 summarizes
and concludes the paper.

Keywords: “cloud” computing, virtual computing lab,
virtualization, utility computing, end-to-end quality of
service

2. Cloud Computing

1. Introduction
“Cloud computing” is the next natural step in
the evolution of on-demand information technology services and products. To a large extent, cloud computing will be based on virtualized
resources.
Cloud computing predecessors have been around
for some time now [1, 12, 15, 17, 18, 24, 29, 30,
35, 40], but the term became “popular” sometime in October 2007 when IBM and Google announced a collaboration in that domain [27, 22]. This was followed by IBM’s announcement of
the “Blue Cloud” effort [23]. Since then, everyone is talking about “Cloud Computing”. Of course, there also is the inevitable Wikipedia
entry [45].
This paper discusses the concept of “cloud”
computing, some of the issues it tries to address,
related research topics, and a “cloud” implementation available today. Section 2 discusses concepts and components of “cloud” computing. Section 3 describes an implementation

A key differentiating element of a successful
information technology (IT) is its ability to become a true, valuable, and economical contributor to cyberinfrastructure [4]. “Cloud” computing embraces cyberinfrastructure, and builds upon decades of research in virtualization, distributed computing, “grid computing”, utility computing, and, more recently, networking,

web and software services. It implies a serviceoriented architecture, reduced information technology overhead for the end-user, greater flexibility, reduced total cost of ownership, ondemand services and many other things. 2.1. Cyberinfrastructure

“Cyberinfrastructure makes applications dramatically easier to develop and deploy, thus expanding the feasible scope of applications
possible within budget and organizational constraints, and shifting the scientist’s and engineer’s effort away from information technology development and concentrating it on scientific
and engineering research. Cyberinfrastructure

236

also increases efficiency, quality, and reliability
by capturing commonalities among application
needs, and facilitates the efficient sharing of
equipment and services.”[5]
Today, almost any business or major activity
uses, or relies in some form, on IT and IT services. These services need to be enabling and appliance-like, and there must be an economyof-scale for the total-cost-of-ownership to be better than it would be without cyberinfrastructure. Technology needs to improve enduser productivity and reduce technology-driven overhead. For example, unless IT is the primary

business of an organization, less than 20% of
its efforts not directly connected to its primary
business should have to do with IT overhead,
even though 80%...

References: TUTORIAL SESSION, Article No. 205, 2006,
ISBN:0-7695-2700-0, also given at Supercomputing 2007 by Altintas, Vouk, Klasky, Podhorszki,
# 41, at Microsoft eScience Workshop Friday Center, University of North Carolina, Chapell Hill, NC,
October 13 – 15, 2007, pp
7-8, 2007, IBM Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC,
pp
North Carolina, Chapell Hill, NC, October 13 – 15,
2007, pp
[10] W. M. BULKELEY, “IBM, Google, Universities
Combine ‘Cloud’ Foces”, Wall Street Journal, October 8, 2007,
30 (12), pp. 1925–1938, 1996.
[15] The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure, 2nd Edition, Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.
0-7923-7809-1, 2000.
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