A) Historical Development in Health Education
Health education in the United States dates back to the late 19th century with the first programs to educate health educators. In the 1940s, quality assurance and standards for professional preparation of health educators were developed. Professional associations created guidelines for preparation of health educators over the next several decades. At the same time, accreditation efforts were introduced.
In the 1970s, health education started to evolve as a profession in the sociological perspective. Efforts to create a health education code of ethics, a skill-based set of competencies, rigorous system for quality assurance and a credentialing system were also initiated.
Today, health care educators can chose to be educated from 250 academic programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels in colleges and universities. A professional code of ethics has been endorsed by Coalition of National Health Education Organizations (CNHEO), the leading health education professional association. Locally :
Before 1898: During the pre-Spanish period, traditional ways of healing (i.e., herbs and rituals) were widely used. Public health services in the Philippines began in 1577 when a Franciscan friar, Fr. Juan Clemente, established a dispensary for Manila indigents. In 1659, the dispensary became the San Juan de Dios Hospital. The Spaniards instituted a hospital system with 13 hospitals and intensified public health work with the creation of the Central Board of Vaccination and a Board of Health and Charity. Before the Americans came to the Philippines, there were already Medicos Titulares, which corresponds to today’s provincial health workers. 1898: On June 23, 1898, the Department of Public Works, Education and Hygiene (currently known as Department of Public Works and Highways, Department of Education, and Department of Health, respectively) was formally proclaimed by President Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo’s proclamation was not continued for they lost to the Americans. Through General Order No. 15, the Americans created a Board of Health for the City of Manila on September 29, 1898. Dr. T.H. Pardo de Tavera and Dr. Aristone Bautista Lim, together with three American surgeons, comprised the provisional board. Being that General Order No. 15 is American in nature, it aimed to protect the health of the American troops. Nevertheless, this American order started the institutional development of the current Department of Health (DOH). 1899: On August 26, 1899, the Board of Health was abolished while Dr. Guy Edie was appointed as the first Commissioner of Health. Registration of births, deaths, and marriages began during this time. 1901: The Philippine Commission created the Board of Health for the Philippine Islands, which served as the local health board, through Act No. 157 dated July 1, 1901. It became the Insular Board of Health when the provincial health boards and municipal health boards were created on December 2, 1901 through Act No. 307 and Act No. 308, respectively. 1905: With Act No. 1407, the Insular Board of Health and its functions were abolished and replaced by the Bureau of Health, being under the Department of Interior. Dr. Victor Heiser was the first Director of the Bureau of Health. 1906: Repealing Act No. 307, Philippine Commission Act No. 1487 ordered that the provincial boards of health be replaced with district health officers. 1912: Act No. 2156 of 1912, also referred to as “Fajardo Act”, consolidated municipalities into sanitary divisions and instigated today’s “Health Fund”. 1915: In 1915, the Bureau of Health was renamed into Philippine Health Service, and later reverted back to its previous name. Dr. Vicente de Jesuswas the first Filipino Director of Health. 1932: The Reorganization Act of 1932or Act No. 4007 created the Office of the Commissioner of Health and Public Welfare with Dr. Basilio J. Valdez as its first Commissioner. 1941:...
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