~Three physicists were instrumental: Heisenberg, De Broglie, and Schrodinger ~Their approach stemmed from De Broglie's matter wave concept known as "Wave Mechanics" or "Quantum Mechanics" ~ Bohr's model was inefficient for atoms other than hydrogen or poly-electronic atoms ~ This new approach to a model of the atom focused on the concept of wave functions ~ Since electrons are particles and therefore have wave properties ~ Schrodinger viewed the electron as a standing wave
~ Standing waves must have whole numbers of half wavelengths in any motion ~ As an electron, this means that the hydrogen atoms could only have certain circular orbits with a circumference that whole number of wavelengths will fit. ~ All other orbits would be destructive in nature and would not exist ~ Schrodinger's mathematical work is simplified to : HΨ = EΨ ~ Ψ is called the wave function with the coordinates of its 3d space position ~ A wave function is called an orbital (this is not the Bohr orbit) ~ The Hydrogen electron in a 1s orbital is not moving around the nucleus in a circular orbit ~ It is still unknown how electrons are moving
1. Principle Quantum Number
~ represented by the letter "n"
~ it can only have positive integer values
~ n determines the size of the orbital
~ it is the energy level in the electron configuration
2. Angular Momentum Quantum Number
~ represented by the letter "l"
~ it has values from 0 to n-1
~ l is the sub-level and shape in the electron configuration l=0=s
3. Magnetic Quantum Number
~ represented by ml
~ it has values between -l and l
~ ml is the orbital
~ it is the probability of where the electrons are; however, the electron is there only 90% of the time
4. Electron Spin Quantum Number
~ represented by ms
~ it has values of -1/2 , 1/2 , and + or - 1/2
~ this is the direction in which an electron spin either "up" or "down"
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