M1- Assess different psychological approaches to study
In this assignment I am going to look back at each theory and explain the different psychological approaches to health and social care practice and then think about and describe the strengths and weaknesses of each one. * Behaviourism:
Behaviourism has many different strengths and weaknesses. One strength of the approach is that is has successfully applied classical and operant condition to its theories. This is strength as it is used in different therapies such as systematic desensitization, which is a type of behaviour therapy to help overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders; it is based on classical conditioning. Another strength is that it uses scientific methods of research making it much more objective, measurable and observable as well as being able to obtain reliable results. An example of this is Banduras’ bobo doll of study of aggression. However, there are also weaknesses to this approach. The Behaviourism approach focuses too much on the “nurture” side of nature/nurture debate and suggests that all behaviour is learned. However, research has shown that cognitive and biological elements have been proved to affect individual’s behaviour. For example, people learn behaviour by observing others getting rewarded for certain actions. Another weakness is the ethical issues raised by using animals in experiments. This is because animals cannot consent to take part and are unable to withdraw themselves from experiments, for example, Pavlov’s dog studies. A major strength of this theory is that it is quick and affordable. As the behaviourism theory focuses on the future and what is happening now instead of the past, treatment can be quick and effective as they are not discussing past experiences which may be time consuming. However, because this theory ignores past experiences and influences, it may cause problems as individuals may need to discuss past experiences in order to sort their emotions out. Because this theory ignores them and focuses on present experiences it can cause a major problem as people may not be able to benefit from the therapy as they need to discuss their past.
* Social Learning Theory:
The Social Learning theory was developed my Albert Bandura who believed that we can learn by observing others. This theory however, has different strengths and weaknesses. One of the great strengths of the social learning theory is that it combines important models of learning. This therefore makes it a good education theory. Another strength is that children are seen are easy to teach and any child can be taught. Albert believed that motivation comes largely through praise. The praise, however, is seen indirectly, since it is the model that is praised, not the child. Once motivated, the model provides the bulk of teaching. The general concept is that children just the right environment to begin learning useful skills. Another strength is that it is an easy theory to grasp and it seems to be generally proven by actual experience. For example, when learning to play football, individuals often first watch a game on TV, which provides the inspiration and motivation to learn to play. However, there are weaknesses that question if this theory is correct. The main weakness of this theory is that is does not include the child’s cognitive development. While there are some cognitive insights in the social learning theory, they are not explained. Albert believed that a child was seen as a sponge, absorbing information through modelling. However, the child’s contribution to how models are absorbed is processed and worked out through time and is not present to any extent in the theory. Another weakness is that is does not have any given cause. The social learning theory explains that motivation exists though praise. However, it seems that motivation is socially conditioned, and therefore relative. The social learning then takes the basic social...
References: Strengths and weakness of behaviourist approach: http://pages.123-reg.co.uk/psyuk-631767/advancedsuccessltd/id23.html (Assessed 20/05/2013)
Strengths and weakness of Social learning theory: http://www.ehow.co.uk/list_6592126_social-learning-theory-strengths-weaknesses.html (Assessed 20/05/2013)
Strengths and weakness of psychodynamic theory: http://quizlet.com/8294726/psychological-approaches-strengths-and-weaknesses-flash-cards/ (Assessed 20/05/2013)
Strengths and weakness of Humanistic approach: http://aqabpsychology.co.uk/2010/07/the-humanistic-approach/
BTEC Health and Social Care Book Level 3- Author WALSH, M (assessed 21/05/13)
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