Psychological Disciplinary Theories

Topics: Tourism, World Tourism Organization, Maslow's hierarchy of needs Pages: 5 (1443 words) Published: April 2, 2013
This study focuses on motivation on why people attend and participate in sporting events; the researcher will be reviewing it based on Psychological disciplinary theories. Sport tourism could be defined as’ leisure based travel that takes individuals temporarily outside of their home communities to participate in physical activities, to watch, or to venerate attractions associated with physical activities according to Gibson, (2006). Individuals seek to travel to either participate or watch sport for reasons as diverse as novelty, nostalgia, relaxation, prestige, education, self-exploration, escapism, or spending time with family or friends according to (Hoye, 2008).There many reasons why people attend sporting events, some of these are because it is cultural to them, it has a meaning, a purpose or it can be like a rites and rituals, which are patterned forms of behaviour. Main Body

In some cases it’s the cognitive psychology, meaning the perception, memory, learning, understanding and sharing and making sense of an experience, which also motivates people to attend and participate in sporting events. Perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting and organizing sensory information. According to ultra-fit magazine (2009) there are six steps to achieve your personal best in motivation. 1 is elite thinking and consistency, 2 is creating the drive 3 is applying the skills to a different context, 4 is perseverance, 5 is to shield yourself and 6 is self-belief and to be consistent in your confidence no matter what the world throws at you. The experience is more than perception; it requires exposure or involvement and has a transforming effect on the individual. The more we experience, presumably the better we should be at learning things according to Getz (2008 p. 62). There are three dimensions of experience there is the conative, which is the actual behaviour and the doing for example running the marathon. The cognitive is making sense of the experience and the affective is the feelings, emotions and values. But experience can also change us holistically in terms of attitudes, values and personality, resulting in behavioural changes. Most researchers agree that there is a distinction between individuals who travel to actively participate in a sport (Active sport Tourism) and those who travel to watch a sports event according to Gibson (1998) and Hall (1992). In the United States, event sport tourism generates an estimated $27 billion a year according to the Travel Industry Association of America, (TIA), 2000 and more than 75 million American adults which are two fifths of the population reported attending a sports event while on vacation according to TIA, (1999). In fact, around the world thousands of people travel significant distances to watch their favourite sports on a regular basis according to Gibson et al (2003:181). However while there have been numerous studies over the years about fans, these have generously focused on the meanings and identities associated with being a fan, or in the case of British football hooliganism for instance e.g. Dunning,( 1990), Ingham (1990),according to Gammon and Kurtzman (2002). While little attention has been given to nostalgia as a separate motive for attendance, nostalgia has been theorized to be one of the variables in the complex interaction of factors to explain the level of loyalty a fan has to a team (Funk, 2002, Gladden and Funk 2001, 2002). For some fans nostalgia can be a strong point of attachment to their favourite team as the team’s logo, the teams head coach or the venue in which the team plays. University sport events have the potential to increase city revenue and community spirit while increasing traveller’s awareness of the local community. Psychologically many people tend to act in a certain way due to the way society is today, which can cause people to behave and act in many ways. For instance society is making people feel they...

References: * Eds S. Gammon. J.Kurtzman 2002 Sport Tourism: Principles and practice. Eastbourne: Leisure studies association
* Funk, D.C., 2002
* Getz, D (2008) Event studies, Theory, research and policy for planned events. 2nd edn. Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann
* Getz , D
* Gibson,H,J., Willming,C and Holdnak, A. 2003. Small scale event tourism: fans as tourists. Tourism management 24, 181-190.
* Gibson, H (1988a) ‘Sport Tourism: A critical analysis of research’, Sport management review. Vol 1:pp 45-76.
* Hall, C (1992b). Hallmark tourist events: Impacts, management and planning. London Belhaven Press
* Hoye, R.,Lillis,K (2008)
* H. Gibson. (2006). Sport tourism concepts and theories: Oxon: Routledge.
* S. Gammon., G. Ramshaw .(2007) Heritage, and sport tourism: Oxon; Routledge
* Ultra-Fit Magazine, motivation and performance Vol 19, No6 Aug 2009
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