patron of the arts
Pope Sixtus IVestablished Sistine Chapel
involved in Pazzi conspiracy
nepotism-favored relatives over merit
Pope Alexander VI Borgiacorrupt pope-sparked Protestant Reformation Pope Julius IIpatron of the arts; patronized Michelangelo in painting the Sistine Chapel ceiling tomb designed by Michelangelo
Pope Leo X Medicisold indulgences to pay for St. Peter's Basilica challenged Martin Luther
Pope Clement VIIrefused to give Henry VIII an annulment with Catherine of Aragon, leading to the Anglican Church Dante AlighieriItalian poet
wrote "Divine Comedy"
exiled from Florence for political reasons
Giovanni Boccacciowrote "The Decameron" in Italian vernacular supporter of Petrarch
Sandro BotticelliFlorentine painter
"Birth of Venus," "Primavera"
Filippo BrunelleschiFlorentine architect
designed duomo of Florence cathedral, chapel of Pazzi family Michelangelosculptor by nature, painted but hated it; incredible realism introvert, hated but thrived on competition
work includes Sistine Chapel ceiling, marble David, and the Pieta studied but criticized da Vinci-equally/more talented
Baldassare CastiglioneItalian writer
"Courtier"-manners, maintaining self control
Benvenuto CelliniFlorentine goldsmith
"Autobiography"-blending artist and artisan
figures of Earth and Sea (opposing forces)
important mannerism artist
Leonardo da Vinciin depth studies of human anatomy-arrested for necromancy introduced sfumato, mastered chiaroscuro, pyramid configuration mysterious backgrounds of painting
famous backward journals; science, architecture, engineering, inventions, practiceetc."renaissance man" Cosimo de Medicihelped found Italian Renaissance
secured peace, patronized artists, established Medici family in Florence; bankers secured government; only people they favored could participate Lorenzo de Medicipatronized Michelangelo, Raphael
established Florence as center of the Renaissance
Pico della Mirandolafirst Renaissance man
"Oration on the Dignity of Man"-God gives people free will to do what they choose DonatelloFlorentine sculptor-revived contrapposto
sculpted idealized nudes
Erasmus of RotterdamChristian humanist leader
"Praise of Folly"-criticized Catholic church, led to Protestant Reformation Lorenzo Ghibertidesigned Gates of Paradise (bronze doors for Florence Baptistery) sculptor/metalworking master
Jacob FuggerGerman merchant
famous patron of the arts
opened metal trade to Europe(Mining)
Giottoearly realist painter; painted frescos
solid bodies, more human expression/emoption, landscape, etc. Tintorettoattended Venetian School
one of the last great Renaissance painters
"The Last Supper"
Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman painter
religious paintings, famous for his portraits
"The French Ambassadors"
Niccolo Machiavelli"The Prince"-leaders must lead with respect and fear influenced age of absolutism
MasaccioFlorentine painter during Quattrocento period
painted "Tribute Money" and "The Holy Trinity"
used dark and light imagery, nature and human bodies
first to paint nudes
Montaignedeveloped the essay
father of Modern Skepticism
Sir Thomas More"Utopia"-perfect society; greed caused society's problems opposed Protestant Reformation
chancellor for Henry VIII but then executed by him
Petrarchfather of humanism
known for his sonnets (to his lover Laura)
Francois RabelaisFrench writer
"Gargantua"-fictional, compared the church to a giant, makes fun of church Raphael Santiused perspective in paintings
"School of Athens"
beautiful, relaxing paintings
Lorenzo Vallafather of modern historical criticism
proved Donation of Constatine (gave power of Western Roman Empire to the pope) was forged Giorgio VasariItalian writer
"The Lives of Artists"-biographies of artists
led to increased patronage from large families (ex. Medici family) and the church (thought art glorified God), repaired the david Hubert van EyckFlemish painter, revolutionized oil-based paint "Three Mary's at the Tomb"
Jan van EyckNorthern Renaissance painter
founded Flemish School of Painting
modernized oil painting technique
El GrecoGreek painter who settled in Spain
combined Eastern and Western art techniques
elongated figures, cool colors
Titianmost famous Venetian painter
painted with extreme realism; viewers can almost feel the painting desired portraitist
Hieronymous BoschDutch painter
painted darker side of religion-devil, sins, punishment
"Garden of Earthly Delights"
Pieter BruegelFlemish painter
landscapes, peasant weddings
"Peasant Wedding," "Hunters in the Snow"
Albrecht DurerGerman painter and engraver
"Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse," "St. Jerome in His Study" known for his impressive engraving skills
Miguel de CervantesSpanish writer-"Don Quixote"
political satire/dichotomy-made fun of overly chivalrous knights but also the people of Europe as a whole helped develop the novel
Johann GutenbergGerman inventor of the movable type printing press allowed for humanist books and ideas to be spread more easily and cheaply increased literacy rate, helped lead to Reformation
Cesare Borgiahero of Machiavelli's "The Prince"
from milan, son of pope alex VI
Lucretia Borgiadaughter of Pope Alexander VI
used as pawn in Alexander's strategy-married to powerful men to gain alliances illusion of power-rare for women
Ludovico SforzaDuke of Milan
let French into Italy to try to expand hispeople-flash-cards/