Product Packaging Influences Buying

Topics: Food, Packaging, Food processing Pages: 28 (10077 words) Published: April 19, 2013
Packaging and purchase decisions

An exploratory study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure [pic]
Pinya Silayoi, Mark Speece
|The Authors |

Pinya Silayoi, Department of Packaging Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand Mark Speece, School of Management, Asian Institute of Technology and Graduate School, Bangkok University, Bangkok, Thailand |Abstract |

The importance of packaging design as a vehicle for communication and branding is growing in competitive markets for packaged food products. This research utilized a focus group methodology to understand consumer behavior toward such products and how packaging elements can affect buying decisions. Visual package elements play a major role, representing the product for many consumers, especially in low involvement, and when they are rushed. Most focus group participants say they use label information, but they would like it if simplified. The challenge for researchers is to integrate packaging into an effective purchasing decision model, by understanding packaging elements as important marketing communications tools. Propositions for future research are proposed which will help in developing better understanding of consumer response to packaging elements. [pic]

Article type: Literature review, Survey.
Keywords: Food packaging, Design, Consumer behaviour.
Content Indicators: Research Implications** Practice Implications** Originality* Readability** [pic]
British Food Journal
Volume 106 Number 8 2004 pp. 607-628
Copyright © MCB University Press ISSN 0007-070x

Introduction: packaging at the point of sale

Packaging seems to be one of the most important factors in purchase decisions made at the point of sale (Prendergast and Pitt, 1996), where it becomes an essential part of the selling process (Rettie and Brewer, 2000). Packaged food products are moving into ever larger supermarkets and hypermarkets, and there is a proliferation of products, offering consumers vast choice. The competitive context is ever more intense, both in the retail store and household. With the move to self-service retail formats, packaging increases its key characteristic as the "salesman on the shelf" at the point of sale. The critical importance of packaging design is growing in such competitive market conditions, as package becomes a primary vehicle for communication and branding (Rettie and Brewer, 2000). This discussion examines how packaging influences buying decisions for packaged food products. The package standing out on the shelf affects the consumer decision process, and package design must insure that consumer response is favorable. The problem is made more complex by several conflicting trends in consumer decision-making. On one hand, some consumers are paying more attention to label information, as they become more concerned about health and nutrition (Coulson, 2000; IGD, 2003c). These consumers are more involved in the product decision and use package information more extensively. On the other hand, modern consumers are often looking for ways to reduce time spent on food shopping and preparation. This can influence decision processes, too, as time pressure reduces detailed consideration of package elements (IGD, 2002b; Warde, 1999). While these are important issues, and becoming even more critical in the intensifying competitive environment, there is little comprehensive study on how packaging elements influence brand choice under involvement and time pressure. This paper aims at forming a better understanding of the link between packaging and consumer purchase behavior. The main objective is to examine packaging elements that influence purchase decisions. From...

References: Adebanjo, D., 2000, "Identifying problems in forecasting consumer demand in the fast moving consumer goods sector", Benchmarking: An International Journal, 7, 3, 223-30.
Asawanipont, N., 2003, "More Thais starting SMEs", The Nation, 1 November.
Beharrell, B., Denison, T.J., 1995, "Involvement in a routine food shopping context", British Food Journal, 97, 4, 24-9.
Blackburn, R., Stokes, D., 2000, "Breaking down the barriers: using focus group to research small and medium-sized enterprises", International Small Business Journal, 19, 1, 44-67.
Chaudhuri, A., 2000, "A macro analysis of the relationship of product involvement and information search: the role of risk", Journal of Marketing Theory and Practices, 8, 1, 1-15.
Coulson, N.S., 2000, "An application of the stages of change model to consumer use of food labels", British Food Journal, 102, 9, 661-8.
Cowley, J.C.P., 2000, "Strategic qualitative focus group research - define and articulate our skills or we will be replaced by others", International Journal of Market Research, 42, 1, 17-39.
Dholakia, M.U., 2001, "A motivational process model of product involvement and consumer risk perception", European Journal of marketing, 35, 11/12, 1340-60.
Food Standards Agency (FSA), 2003, "Clear labeling task force: recommendations on ideal label formats", available at: (accessed November 2003).
Gofton, L., 1995, "Dollar rich and time poor? Some problems in interpreting changing food habits", British Food Journal, 97, 10, 11-16.
Grossman, R.P., Wisenblit, J.Z., 1999, "What we know about consumers ' colour choices", Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 5, 3, 78-88.
Hausman, A., 2000, "A multi-method investigation of consumer motivations in impulse buying behaviour", Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17, 5, 403-19.
Healy, M., Perry, C., 2000, "Comprehensive criteria to judge validity and reliability of qualitative research within the realism paradigm", Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 3, 3, 118-26.
Herrington, J.D., Capella, L.M., 1995, "Shopping reactions to perceived time pressure", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 23, 12, 13-20.
Imram, N., 1999, "The role of visual cues in consumer perception and acceptance of a food product", Nutrition and Food Science, 5, 224-8.
Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD), 2001, Winning the Mature Vote.
Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD), 2002a, The Single Male Shopper: Are They Men Behaving Badly?.
Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD), 2002b, Continued Demand for Convenience, available at: (accessed November 2003).
Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD), 2003a, Competition Intensifies in Thailand, available at: (accessed November 2003).
Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD), 2003b, Packaging Legibility: Recommendations for Improvement.
Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD), 2003c, The Key to a Healthier Diet is Clearer Food Labeling and Healthier Food Choices Say Consumers, available at: (accessed November 2003).
Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD), 2003d, Communication is Key to Improving Shoppers ' Perception of Retailer Brands, available at: (accessed November 2003).
Jinks, A.M., Daniels, R., 1999, "Workplace health concerns: a focus group study", Journal of Management in Medicine, 13, 2, 95-104.
Jitpleecheep, S., 2003, "Sales of buffets slow, those of green tea up", Bangkok Post, 11 November.
Kotler, P., Ang, S.H., Leong, S.M., Tan, C.T., 1996, Marketing Management: An Asian Perspective, Prentice-Hall, Singapore.
Kupiec, B., Revell, B., 2001, "Measuring consumer quality judgements", British Food Journal, 103, 1, 7-22.
Lysonski, S., Durvasula, S., Zotos, Y., 1996, "Consumer decision-making styles: a multi-country investigation", European Journal of Marketing, 30, 12, 10-21.
McIlveen, H., 1994, "Product development and the consumer: the reality of the managing creativity", Nutrition & Food Science, 6, 26-30.
McWilliam, G., 1997, "Low involvement brands: is the brand manager to blame?", Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 15, 2, 60-70.
Madden, J.T., Hewett, K., Roth, M.S., 2000, "Managing images in different cultures: a cross-national study of colour meaning and preferences", Journal of International Marketing, 8, 4, 90-107.
Mitchell, V.W., 1999, "Consumer perceived risk: conceptualisations and models", European Journal of Marketing, 33, 1/2, 163-95.
Mitchell, V.W., Papavassiliou, V., 1999, "Marketing causes and implications of consumer confusion", Journal of Product & Brand Management, 8, 4, 319-39.
Nancarrow, C., Wright, T.L., Brace, I., 1998, "Gaining competitive advantage from packaging and labeling in marketing communications", British Food Journal, 100, 2, 110-8.
National Food Institute (NFI), 2003, Major Market Thai Food Export 2001, 2002, available at: (accessed November 2003).
Palumbo, F., Herbig, P., 2000, "The multicultural context of brand loyalty", European Journal of Innovation Management, 3, 3, 116-24.
Phuangkanok, N., 2001, "Retailing survey: supercentres now No. 1", The Nation.
Prendergast, P.G., Marr, N.E., 1997, "Generic products: who buys them and how do they perform relative to each other?", European Journal of Marketing, 31, 2, 94-109.
Prendergast, P.G., Pitt, L., 1996, "Packaging, marketing, logistics and the environment: are there trade-offs?", International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 26, 6, 60-72.
Quester, P.G., Smart, J., 1998, "The influence of consumption situation and product involvement over consumers ' use of product attribute", Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15, 3, 220-38.
Raghubir, P., Krishna, A., 1999, "Vital dimensions in volume perception. Can the eye fool the stomach?", Journal of Marketing Research, 36, 3, 313-26.
Rettie, R., Brewer, C., 2000, "The verbal and visual components of package design", Journal of Product & Brand Management, 9, 1, 56-70.
Rungfapaisarn, K., 2001, "Tesco chief reshaped retail landscape", The Nation.
Rungfapaisarn, K., 2002, "Thai retail market second only to China", The Nation.
Smith, D., Riethmuller, P., 2000, "Consumer concerns about food safety in Australia and Japan", British food journal, 102, 11, 838-55.
Speece, M., 1998, "Value orientation among Asian middle class consumers", Marketing and Research Today (ESOMAR), 27, 4, 156-65.
Speece, M., 2000, "Positioning Thai brands in developed country markets: consumer research from Finland", Sasin Journal of Management (Thailand), 6, 1, 75-90.
Speece, M., 2002, "Consumer value orientation in Vietnam 's urban middle class", Der Markt: Zeitschrift für Absatzwirtschaft und Marketing 41/163 (2002/4), 158-69.
Speece, M., 2003, "Consumer marketing in Asia for the new economy", paper presented at the Executive Seminar organized by JKYL (International) Pte Ltd, Singapore, 6 November 2003 (also presented in October 2002, August 2001, October 2000).
Speece, M., Luc, Thi Thu Huong, 2002, "Attitudes of mini-supermarket shoppers in Hanoi, Vietnam: a case study in the early development of modern retailing", Journal of the Korean Academy of Marketing Science, 10, 11, 187-212.
The Nation, 2002, "Unilever unfolds new business units", 18 November 2002, available at: (accessed November 2003).
The Nation, 2003, "Institute to host food exhibition", 19 September 2003, available at: (accessed November 2003).
UK Trade and Investment, 2003, "Country profile: Thailand", available at: (accessed November 2003).
Underwood, R.L., Klein, N.M., Burke, R.R., 2001, "Packaging communication: attentional effects of product imagery", Journal of Product and Brand Management, 10, 7, 403-22.
Vakratsas, D., Ambler, T., 1999, "How advertising works: what do we really know?", Journal of Marketing, 63, 26-43.
Warde, A., 1999, "Convenience food: space and timing", British Food Journal, 101, 7, 518-27.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Influence of Consumer Buying Behavior Essay
  • Essay about Influence of Advertising in Consumer Buying Behavior
  • packaging Essay
  • Essay on packaging
  • Factors that influence consumer buying behavior Essay
  • Impact Of Product Packaging Essay
  • Product Visibility and Packaging Essay
  • The marketing mix: product and packaging Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free