There are three theories or models of criminal justice. The first is the retributive theory, the second is the rehabilitative theory, and the last is the restorative theory. The first basically concerns itself with the punishment of people by putting them in boot camps/prisons or away from people, in order to deter their ways. Such acts instill discipline and fear, which in turn reduces crime. The second one believes that working with these people change their ways reduce crime (The U .S. Penal System: Restorative and /or Retributive Justice).The third restorative theory aims to reintroduce and re-incorporate the persons back into the community after retribution or rehabilitation. The retributive theory is optimistic and believes that people are innately good such that prison cells are built so that the prisoner inside the cell can be silent. As he is silent, he can meditate on his wrong-doings. This tradition believes that then spiritual transformation may take place thus rehabilitating such person. On the other hand, the rehabilitative theory is pessimistic, which is why facilities were built to bring about obedience. What is done is to “instill habits of work in people, help build their skills' then they will be rehabilitated. The third restorative theory is one, which believes that true rehabilitation takes place when such person is allowed back into the community and is a combination of both retributive and rehabilitative theories, seeks to (1 )deter future and past criminals from doing a crime because the threat of incarceration looms (2 ) incapacitate the offender to stop the individual from possibly endangering others (3 ) punish the criminal by serving time and living a restricted lifestyle and (4 ) rehabilitate them for release into society (Fuller , 125-27). According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the probation success rate is 62%. Most probation programs are designed to (1) protect the community by assisting judges in sentencing and supervising offenders, (2) carry out sanctions imposed by the court, (3) help offenders change, (4) support crime victims, and (5) coordinate and promote the use of community resources.
Background Parole in America's criminal system is one of today's most hotly debated topics in the criminal justice field is whether or not individual states should abandon the parole system. Parole is a release from confinement after serving part of the sentence: conditional release from prison under supervision of a parole officer who has the authority to recommend a return to prison if the conditions of parole are violated. It is only in the last 30 years that community corrections have become a substantial part of the correctional system. The procedure known as “parole” in the criminal justice system has been in practice in the United States since the late 1800’s when it was begun in a reformatory in Elmira, New York. The ground work for probation was laid in 1830 with the use of release on recognizance. Probation began to emerge in 1841 with the volunteer efforts of John Augustus. He began by first recommending to judges that certain offenders be released under his supervision.
In recent years, the push for alternatives to incarceration has, in large part, been in response to rapidly increasing prison populations in Canada and the United States. Legislators in Canada and the United States have passed legislation in recent years aimed at reducing or stabilizing prison populations. Canada and the United States have the highest rates of incarceration of all Western democratic countries, at 130 and 529 per 100,000 populations respectively (Correctional Service of Canada, 1995). Canadian prison and penitentiary populations are increasing rapidly, up 12% and 22% respectively between 1989/90 and 1994/95. Beginning in the 1950s, national attention was focused on the development of alternative, community-based correctional services. In the early stages of the community corrections movement,...
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