Robotic surgery has been on the rise since its approval in 1997, spreading to hospitals and surgical centers all over the United States and seen Internationally. This increase in technology in the medical field could be either a remarkable change or the medical industries worst “Terminator” nightmares. This type of surgery has been revolutionary to the surgical field, by creating machines that are capable of more procedures and higher precision than the machine before. Using information found in scholarly journals and the websites of schools that this technology began at, this research is set to examine robotic surgery and its emergence into the medical field. This paper specifically tackles the advantages and incentives that accompany the safety precautions and pitfalls to robotic surgery, while also asking what will this technology do next and venturing into examples of how this technology has impact on doctors and the field of medicine itself. Most patients and doctors support the new technology and its impact on other doctors, feeling comfortable with where the technology is taking the medical field. While websites support the same features and advantages of robotic surgery-- faster healing, precision of the cuts, and the convenience it has for both the patients and doctors-- they sometimes avoid the glitches and problems that technology generally has. From the findings, it is concluded that due to the vast support of the new technology, robotic surgery, and hard to find negatives most will find comfort in trusting and using this new technology and follow it to where ever it takes the medical field.
Present Day Robotic Surgery and Beyond
Robots in medicine weren't used until the late 20th century and there were several events that helped the integration of robotics into the medicine. "The first event was the creation and mainstreaming of computer technology. The second event was installation of robots in an American automobile manufacturing plant in 1961"( The Evolution). Along with the rapid rise of technology during the 20th century, these events also helped by introducing robotics to people in the United States. As was said before, Robotic surgery has the potential to revolutionize healthcare. This will most likely change the way we think about technology as a whole. The idea behind making robotic surgery machines was to have something hold the instruments while the surgeon operates. It turned into something much more than that as years passed though. All the things a surgeon directly does on a patient will be done by robotic arms that hold miniature cameras and surgical tools. With such a system, operations will be more precise and done in smaller areas. In fact, a surgeon may never actually touch the patient. Not only will this be a more effective way of operating on a patient, but, with the use video-game-like controls to operate Robots, procedures traditionally viewed as being delicate will be completed in no time using Robotics. This technology seems to have come from nowhere; people are now just hearing about it through advertisements on hospital and surgical centers websites. Many people occupying the medical industry have questions about this new technology, like where did it come from and how it will help or hinder the medical field.
Introduced in 1987, Robots were used in the first Laparoscopic surgery-- a cholescystecotomy, to be exact. Also known by names such as keyhole surgery, band-aid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), Laparoscopic surgery is a surgical technique referring to operations within the abdomen or pelvic region. More specifically speaking, it belongs to the field of endoscopy. The first robots used in the surgery consisted of a Hopkins rod lens system, that was usually connected to a video camera (single chip or three chip), and a fiber optic cable system connected to a 'cold' light source (halogen or xenon) that was used to illuminate the area...
References: Berlinger, Norman T. "Robotic Surgery ? Squeezing into Tight Places." The New England Journal of Medicine 354 (2006): 2099-101. 18 May 2006. Web.
Freyer, Felice J. "Hospital Set for Da Vinci Robot." The Providence Journal 14 Feb. 2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2010. .
Kolata, Gina. "Results Unproven, Robotic Surgery Wins Converts." New York Times. 13 Feb. 2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2010. .
Kowalczyk, Liz. "Caution Sounded on Robot-aided Prostate Surgery." Boston Globe. 14 Oct. 2009. Web. 5 Apr. 2010. .
Mack, Michael J. "Minimally Invasive and Robotic Surgery." The Journal of the American Medical Association 285 (2001): 568-72. 7 Feb. 2001. Web. 5 Apr. 2010. .
Morgan, Jeffery A. "Does Robotic Technology Make Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery Too Expensive? A Hospital Cost Analysis of Robotic and Conventional Techniques." Journal of Cardiac Surgery 20.3 (2005): 246-51. Print.
Ronning, Andrea. "Oregon Hospitals Use Robots For Surgery." Maine News, Weather, Sports Channel 6 NBC Portland. 2009. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. .
Vijay, Soni. "Da Vinci Robotic Surgery: Pros and Cons Medical Questions, Weight Loss, Pregnancy, Drugs, Health Insurance." Steady Health. 30 Mar. 2010. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. .
Anthony, R., Lanfranco, B., Andres E., Castellanos, M., Jaydev P., and William, C. (2004) “Robotic Surgery A Current Perspective”, Ann Surg, 239 (1): 14–21.
Satava R., Bowersox J., Mack, M., (2001) “Robotic surgery: state of the art and future trends”, Contemp Surg, 57:489–499.
Stolzenburg, J, Turk, I., and Liatsikos, E. (2011) “Laparoscopic and Robot-Assisted Surgery in Urology: Atlas of Standard Procedures: A Guide to Standard Procedures”, Springer.
Satava RM. Surgical robotics: the early chronicles: a personal historical perspective. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2002;12:6–16. [PubMed]
Felger JE, Nifong L
Marescaux J, Leroy J, Rubino F, et al. Transcontinental robot-assisted remote telesurgery: feasibility and potential applications. Ann Surg. 2002;235:487–492. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Cheah WK, Lee B, Lenzi JE, et al
Jones SB, Jones DB. Surgical aspects and future developments in laparoscopy. Anesthiol Clin North Am. 2001;19:107–124.
Kim VB, Chapman WH, Albrecht RJ, et al. Early experience with telemanipulative robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy using Da Vinci. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2002;12:34–40.
Fuchs KH. Minimally invasive surgery. Endoscopy. 2002;34:154–159. [PubMed]
Allendorf JD, Bessler M, Whelan RL, et al
Satava RM, Bowersox JC, Mack M, et al. Robotic surgery: state of the art and future trends. Contemp Surg. 2001;57:489–499.
Prasad SM, Ducko CT, Stephenson ER, et al. Prospective clinical trial of robotically assisted endoscopic coronary grafting with 1 year follow-up. Ann Surg. 2001;233:725–732. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Kwoh YS, Hou J, Jonckheere EA, et al
Davies B. A review of robotics in surgery. Proc Inst Mech Eng. 2000;214:129–140.
Kennedy C, Hu T, Desai JP, et al. A Novel Approach to Robotic Cardiac Surgery using Haptics and Vision. Cardiovascular Engineering: An International Journal, 2002.
Kennedy C, Hu T, Desai JP. Combining Haptic and Visual Servoing for Cardiothoracic Surgery. 2002 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Volume: 2, 2002 Page(s): 2106–2111, Washington DC, May 2002.
Kennedy CW, Desai JP. Force Feedback Using Vision. The 11th International Conference on Advanced Robotics, June 30–July 3, 2003 University of Coimbra, Portugal.
Cadierre GB, Himpens J. Feasibility of robotic laparoscopic surgery: 146 cases. World J Surg. 2001;25:1467–1477. [PubMed]
Falcone T, Goldberg JM, Margossian H, et al
Margossian H, Falcone T. Robotically assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy and adnexal surgery. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2001;11:161–165. [PubMed]
Marescaux J, Smith MK, Folscher D, et al
Abbou CC, Hoznek A, Saloman L, et al. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with a remote controlled robot. J Urol. 2001;165:1964–1966. [PubMed]
Damiano RJJr, Tabaie HA, Mack MJ, et al
Mohr FW, Falk V, Diegeler A, et al. Computer-enhanced “robotic” cardiac surgery: experience in 148 patients.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001;121:842–853. [PubMed]
Kappert U, Cichon R, Schneider J, et al
Please join StudyMode to read the full document