Posner on the Curriculum Development System, and Issues and Problems of Nursing

Topics: Curriculum, Nursing, Health care Pages: 9 (2829 words) Published: August 27, 2013
Posner describes the common concepts around curriculum to include: · Scope and sequence, or a series of intended learning outcomes., with the role of guiding both the instructional and evaluation decisions. · Syllabus, or plan for an entire course, with elements of both the ends and means of the course. · Content outline, which is sufficient only if the sole purpose of education is to transmit specific content. · Textbook, or a guide to both the ends and means of education. · Course of study, with the concept of a journey through the educational program. · Planned experience, actually comprising all experiences planned by the school. (Posner, p. 5, 9) Posner defines various levels of curriculum (Posner, p.10-12): · The official curriculum, or written curriculum, gives the basic lesson plan to be followed, including objectives, sequence, and materials. This provides the basis for accountability. · The operational curriculum is what is taught by the teacher, and how it is communicated. This includes what the teacher teaches in class and the learning outcomes for the student. · The hidden curriculum includes the norms and values of the surrounding society. These are stronger and more durable than the first two, and may be in conflict with the them. · The null curriculum consists of what is not taught. Consideration must be given to the reasons behind why things are not included in the official or operational curriculum. · The extra curriculum is the planned experiences outside of the specific educational session. Maria Harris is Visiting Professor of Religious Education at Fordham University and New York University, and is the Core Faculty of Auburn Theological Seminary in New York. Her publication that is used here is Fashion Me A People: Curriculum in the Church (Westminster/John Knox Press, 1989). Harris refers to Acts 2:42, 44-47 as "first portrait of church curriculum we have, although the word "curriculum" is not used. In the description, Luke gives us the central elements, or the set of forms, that embody the course of the church's life. In this book [Fashion Me a People] I propose to show that fashioning and refashioning of this set of forms is the core of the educational ministry of the church. I also propose to show that the forms themselves are the primary curriculum of the church, the course of the church's life, and that in fashioning these forms we fashion the church. And becausewe are the church, the fashioning of the forms becomes the fashioning of us." (Harris, p.17) The footnote in the New Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocrapha (Oxford University Press, 1992, p.614 NT)or the scripture cited above notes that Christians in Jerusalem held everything in common, which reinforces the intensity of the religious community. These concepts gives the definitional premise: a religious education curriculum is the learning which occurs in connection with the church community. This is consistent with Harris's description of curriculum as being fluid, as being "in the midst and celebrating a meaning of curriculum that consciously incorporates other facets of ministry" which means "that a fuller and more extensive curriculum is already present in the church's life: in teaching, worship, community, proclamation, and outreach." (Harris, p.63) The Nature of Curriculum Development System

Curriculum comes form the Latin root, "currere" which means "to run", which later came to stand as the "course of study."

Curriculum is the sum total of all learning content, experiences, and resources that are purposely selected, organized and implemented by the school in pursuit of its peculiar mandate as a distinct institution of learning and human development.

(Why should a listing of subject areas, course of study and textbook series not considered as a curriculum?)

Curriculum Development
Development is a specific word that connotes change. Change means any alternation or modification in the existing order of things. ...
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