POLLUTION- SEABED AND SUBSOIL
Pollution from seabed activities is caused by the release of harmful substances arising directly from the exploration, exploitation and processing of seabed materials.
It accounts for only 1 per cent of pollution of the marine environment, although, in certain regions, such as the Arabian Gulf, the proportion is considerably higher due to oil exploration activities.
Sadly, international legislations on pollution from seabed and subsoil activities are to a great extent undeveloped. UNCLOS establishes a basic framework of general commitments which have so far been supplemented by the general rules established in most regional seas agreements and by some specific regional treaties on the matter existing in the respective states.
-The incident which brought this form of pollution to light:
In April 2010, the explosion of Deepwater Horizon, a semi-submersible offshore oil-drilling rig, in the Gulf of Mexico raised concern about the dangers of these operations. Eleven people died in the accident and about 4.9 million barrels of crude oil were released over a period of three months.
It was considered as the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry.
To this day, severe ecological impacts were felt as a result of this disaster in the United States where the commercial and recreational fisheries were closed for several months, with some for up to a year, following the accident.
-After carefully studying the topic, considering the territorial sovereignty and the sovereign rights of states applicable to the seabed and subsoil of the sea, the topic can be divided into:
a) The legal regime adopted by the Coastal States within their territorial sea and EEZ and b) The legal regime adopted in the Area.
a) The Legal Regime adopted by the Coastal States within their Territorial Sea and EEZ.
The main form of pollution