Anita L. Luclucan
is a decision-making
framework or course of action to
achieve a desired effect or
change.” In the context of the public
sector, policies support political
purposes by Government or
administrative directions by
organizations in response to the
changing world around them.
Be broad and visionary.
Express standards, behaviours, and expectations to
Be a concept or stated position of intended
Be a statement of principle.
Policy can take a range of different forms,
including non-intervention; regulation, for
instance by licensing; or the encouragement of
voluntary change, which includes the grant of
aid; as well as direct public service provision.
◦Is defined as the process by which
governments translate their political
vision into programs and actions to
deliver 'outcomes' - desired change
in the real world.
policy-making is a fundamental
function of any government.
provide a starting point to help
those working on developing or
reviewing policy to identify what
issues they need to take into account
to ensure that policy is evidencebased, focused on outcomes, forward looking, 'joined up' and meets
The process of policy-making is not a high
science, but it is difficult to do well. As in
any process, there are tools and techniques
that can help in doing the job more
effectively. Public policy operates in an
extremely wide environment. Governments
have obligations to, and are answerable to
the public. Policy-making often requires a
department or the administration as a
whole to strike a balance among a wide
range of competing interests without losing
sight of the desired policy outcome.
to Paul A Sabatier (1999, p.
3), the public policymaking process
”… includes the manner in which
problems get conceptualized and
brought to the government for
solution; governmental institutions
formulate alternatives and select
policy solutions; and those solutions
get implemented, evaluated and
◦Agenda setting is the process wherein
problems, issues and concerns of the
health sector are identified and clearly
◦Publicized demands for government
action can lead to identification of policy
◦Attention that prompts the need for
◦Policy formulation is the process of
transforming an agenda into policy
◦Policy proposals can be formulated
through political channels by policyplanning organizations, interest groups, government bureaucracies,
state legislatures, and the president
◦Development of possible solutions;
consideration of several alternatives
◦Policy adoption is the process by which
the approving authority decides for the
approval of the policy.
◦Policy is legitimized as a result of the
public statements or actions of
government officials; both elected and
appointed—the president, Congress,
state legislators, agency officials, and the
court. This includes executive orders,
budgets, laws and appropriations, rules
and regulations, and administrative and
court decisions that set policy directions.
◦Policy implementation is the
process of carrying out or executing
◦Policy implementation includes all the
activities that result from the official
adoption of a policy. Policy
implementation is what happens after a
law is passed. We should never assume
that the passage of a law is the end of
the policymaking process. Sometimes
laws are passed and nothing happens!
Policy Evaluation and Change
◦Policy evaluation and monitoring is the
process by which policies are assessed
using a set of parameters to determine
whether it should be continued or
◦ A step which is often disregarded in the policy
◦ What were the policy’s goals ?
◦ Were they were achieved?
◦ What are the impacts ?
direct vs. indirect
short-term vs. long-term
◦ Try to establish a feedback loop into the policy
1. Preparation: Prepare well for changing
policies. Conduct the necessary research
to get to know as much as possible about
2. Planning: Plan carefully for policy
change. To ensure that your overall
strategy makes sense, and that changing
policies is a necessary and appropriate
part of it, strategic planning is essential.
3. Personal contact: Establish or maintain
contact with those who influence or make
policy. Personal relationships, even with
opponents, are the key to successful
advocacy of all kinds, and changing policy is
4. Pulse of the community: Take the pulse
of the community of interest to understand
what citizens will support, what they will
resist, and how they can be persuaded. You
will have a far greater chance of success if
you set out to change policies in ways the
community will support, or at least tolerate,
than if you challenge people’s basic beliefs.
Positivism: Where you can, choose
tactics that emphasize the positive.
Participation: Involve as many
people as possible in strategic
planning and action. Try to engage key
people, particularly opinion leaders
and trusted community figures, but
concentrate on making your effort
participatory. That will give it
Publicity: Use the media, the
Internet, your connections, and your
imagination to keep people informed
of the effort and the issues, and to
keep a high profile.
Persistence: Policy change can
take a long time. Monitor and
evaluate your actions to make sure
they are having the desired effect,
and change them if they are not.