Pharmacognosy

Topics: Fatty acid, Linoleic acid, Vegetable oils Pages: 33 (8720 words) Published: September 1, 2014
PHARMACOGNOSY REVIEWER
In pharmacognosy, drugs may be classified based on morphology, chemical constituents and therapeutic applications (NOT price in the market) Factors that influence secondary constituent: heredity, ontogeny, environment Chromatography: process based on distribution of mixture between 2 phases General Information

Discoverers/Scientists
Joseph Caventou & Pelletier
Quinine  antimalarial
Pierre Robiquet
Codeine/Narcotine
Philip Geiger & Rudolf Brandes
Hyoscyamine and Atropine
Dioscorides
“De Materia Medica”
Galen
“galenical” pharmacy, described the method of preparation of formulas containing plant and animal drugs Seydler
COINED the word “pharmacognosy”
Schmidt
USED the word “pharmacognosy”
Fluckiger
Stated scope of pharmacognosy – “application of various scientific disciplines with the object of requiring knowledge of drugs from every point of view” Serturner
Isolated morphine
Aristotle
Attempted to separate superstitious belief from the fact in his writing on the animal kingdom Egyptian
Ebers Papyrus
Scheele
Isolated citric acid
Paracelsus
Referred opium as “Stone of Imortality”
A. Hoffman
Discovered lysergic acid diethylamide: most active and most specific hallucinogen

Review of Botany
Pharmacobiotechnology: application of biotechnology to pharmaceuticals Taxonomic classification: classification that considers the natural relationship or phylogeny existing among plants and animals Phylogeny- natural relationship existing among plants and animals Taxonomic/Zoologic/Botanic Classification –Classification of drugs considers the natural relationship or phylogeny among plants and animals Indigenous - plant growing native to their country

Naturalized - grow in foreign land or locality other than their native homes Crude drugs - vegetable or animal drugs that consist of natural substances that have undergone only the processes of collection and drying Pharmaceutically active - may cause precipitation or other chemical changes in a medicinal preparation Pharmacologically active - responsible for therapeutic activity of the drug Drug Biosynthesis/Biogenesis - study of biochemical pathways leading to the formation of secondary constituents of drugs Quality: intrinsic value of the drug; Amount of the medicinal principles present Menstruum - solvent

Marc - residue
Extractive - product
Isoprene: basic unit of terpenes
Monoterpenes: 2 isoprene units; found mostly in volatile oil Sesquiterpene: 3 isoprene units; largest class of terpenoids Diterpenes: 4 isoprene units
Triterpenes: 6 isoprene units
Isopentyl pyrophosphate: Chemical name of active isoprene unit in the biosynthesis of terpenoids Geranyl pyrophosphate: C-10 precursor of terpenes & plays and key role in formation of monoterpenes Precursors of phenylpropanoid compounds:

Cinnamic acid
P-hydroxycinnamic acid
P-coumaric acid
Shikimic acid: precursor of aromatic ring in microorganisms and higher plants Carbohydrates: compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen as polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone alcohols Glycosides: substance that on hydrolysis yield one or more sugar among the products of reaction Tannins: group of complex phenolic compounds capable of combining with protein; amorphous, polyhydroxy-phenolic compound with astringent taste Lipids: compounds comprising fixed oils, fats and waxes

Fixed oils: Glyceryl esters of fatty acids that are saponified by alkalies Waxes: Esters of fatty acids with high molecular weight monohydric alcohols Volatile oils: essential oils that represent the odoriferous principles of plants Resin: Solid or semisolid amorphous products of complex chemical nature; hard, transparent or translucent exudates; soften and finally melts upon standing Resene: complex neutral substance devoid of characteristic chemical properties Resinol: complex alcohol by high molecular weight that do not give a tannin reaction with ion salts Oleoresin: Resin + Volatile Oil

Oleogumresin: Resin+ Volatile...
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