Personality and Development Theories: Key Concepts

Pages: 5 (920 words) Published: February 23, 2014


CHCCSL504A Apply personality and development theories

1.
Freud
Key Concepts

The mind is made up of three parts:
The Id - works on the pleasure principle
The ego - works on the reality principle
The super-ego – works on the morality principle

Stages of Development

Oral stage (0-18 months) sucking especially breasts/biting
Anal stage (18 months – 3 years) anal pleasure from holding in and letting go Phallic stage (3-4 years) genitalia rubbing/touching
Latent stage (5-7 years) sexual impulse is suppressed to enable learning Genital stage ( puberty +) sexual intercourse

Piaget
Key concepts

Schemas – Action Patterns
Assimilation – interpreting environment with schemas
Accomodation – changing schemas

Stages of development

Sensory motor stage (Birth- 2 years)
During this stage sense, reflexes and motor abilities develop rapidly (1973, p.36).

Pre-operational stage (2-7 years)
The child in the pre-operational stage is not yet able to think logically (1973, p.36).

Concrete operations (7-11 years)
The child is able to perform mental operations (1973, pg.36).

Formal operations (11-16 years)
The child can think about the future, the abstract, the hypothetical (1973, pg.36).

Erikson
Key Concepts

Importance of social influences on development, identity, identity crisis. Body identity- image of physical self
Ego ideal – image of people you admire and would like to be like Ego identity – what you think of your self and roles you play

Developmental stages

Oral-sensory (0-2years)
Children begin to learn the ability to trust others based upon the consistency of their caregivers.

Muscular-anal (2-4 years)
Children begin to gain their independence
Locomotor-genital (4-5 years)
Children begin to plan activities, make up games and initiate activities with others

Latency (5-12 years)
Children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments

Adolescence (13-19 years)
Children begin to look after their futures in terms of career, relationships, families, housing etc

Maslow
Key concepts

Hierarchy of needs and self-actualisation
Air, food, water
safety, love, self-esteem
self-actualisation

Stages of Development

Biological and physiological needs: air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep Safety needs: protection from elements, security, order, law Belongingness and love needs: work, groups, family, affection, relationships Esteem-needs – self esteem, achievement, independence, status

2. Maslows theory of stages of development 'Belongingness and love needs' is a stage that relates to my own personal experience that stands out. Being that it relates to family and relationships. At the age of around 9 or 10 I was given a large piece of information that was hard to comprehend at that age. It related to who I had known and grown with as my family, only to discover that one side of my family were not my biological family. I had a whole other family that I never knew existed, it also explained why I was the only non blue eyed blonde haired family member. As it was hard to process until I was a teenager. I dealt with it slowly and when I was ready I was introduced to them. Although it was not how I pictured everything to turn out to this day, I have more insight into my other family. Out of the four younger brothers and sisters I gained, only one of them as a little sister. She is the only one who was accepted me and involves me in her life.

3. Piaget would believe that with my experience I would be able to think logically and more rationally by processing the information adult-like. Erikson would believe that my way of coping would result in feelings of inferiority. According to Maslow, we need a sense of belonging and acceptance. Maslows theory relates more to my experience as it was a feeling of not

understanding where I belonged for a long time.
Freud would be the least useful as the latency stage suggests that a childchances...

References: Piaget,J. (1973). Main trends in Psychology. London. George Allen & Unwin.
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