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Periodic Table essay

By Yuanxin-Xu Oct 24, 2014 1323 Words

Periodic Table
The periodic table is a table, where all known chemical elements are arranged. They are organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electrons and chemical properties. The atomic of an element is the same as the number of electrons or protons in that particular atom. They elements in the table are placed in order from the lowest to the highest. 429768018669000The periodic table is ordered into periods and groups. A row of elements across the periodic table is calleda a period. Each period has a number, from 1 till 7. Period 1 only has 2 elements in it: Hydrogen and helium. Period 2 and 3 both have 8 lements. Other periods are usually longer. A colomn of elements down the table is called a group. There are 18 groups in the periodic table. Each group has a number from 1 till 18. Elements in a group are usually catorized so because they all have electrons arranged in smimilar ways. They behave in 434848049657000similar ways. For example, group 18(the last group) is known as noble gases because they are all gases and they do not combine with other atoms. This way, the periodic table is ordered and chemists can use it to observe patterns, and also relationships between the elements. The periodic table at the far left are the most metallic ones, and elements on the top right are the least metallic. A metallic element is for example cesium, and helium is much less metallic. They are also more patterns and relationships between the arrangements of the periodic table. 24701517907000Below an image of the periodic table:

4715510-463550Dimitri Mendeleev was born in February 1834 in Tobolsk and died in February 1907 in Saint Petersburg. He was a Russion chemist. He was the main creator of the periodic table of elements. At his time, chemistry was not as developed as now and many of his predictions he put in the periodic table(things such as properties of elements still not discovered at the time). The predictions he made were proven by experiments later. Mendeleev was born in a small town near Tobolsk, his father was Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev and his mother Maria Dmitrievna Mendeleeva. His grandfather was Pavel Maximovich Sokolov. His grandfather was a priest of Russion Orthodox Church. Mendeleev invented the periodic table in later life. Mendeleev was the youngest of his youugest 14 siblings, but the exact number is not known due to numbers differeing between sources. At the age of 13, his father died and his mother’s factory was destructed, the poor family moved to Saint Petersburg. In 1849, the family Mendeleev was very poor, but Dmitri Mendeleev did enter the Main Pedogogical Instute. After gruaduation, the sickness tubercolosis struck him, which caused him to move to the Crimean Penisula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in 1855, being there he became a science master of the Simperopol Gynasium. He returned to his family with full heath to Saint Petersbrug in 1857. Despite the fact that the periodic table is so well known, still many people have never heard of it. To them, this table is a unknown and a mystery to them. They have no idea how it is structured and what the elements mean, but to people who have done a bit of reasearch and learnt a little about this subject, it is very easy because of the simple structure of this periodic table. The rows in the periodic table correspond to primary energy levels. Mendeleev was the main creator of the periodic table, and his rule was that when elements react similar to each other, they are each other’s neighbours. This was the structure of the periodic table:

s s
s s p p p p p p
s s p p p p p p
s s d d d d d d d d d d p p p p p p
s s d d d d d d d d d d p p p p p p
s s d d d d d d d d d d p p p p p p
s s f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f The arrangement of the periodic table is also effected by the atom number and mass number. As we know, elements are made of atoms. An atom’s atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus. When atoms only have 1 proton, they have an atomic number of 1. For example, all hydrogen atoms only have 1 proton. Another example are carbon atoms, thehy contain a total of 6 protons and therefore have an atomic number of 6. Oxygen atoms contain 8 protons and also have a atomic number of 8. The atomic number of an element is fixed, it never changes, which means that the number of protons in the nucleus of every atom in an element is always the same. An atom’s mass number is as followed:

Helium was discovered in 1895 by Sir William Ramsay in Londen. The name comes from the Greek word “helios”meaning sun. It is in Group 18, which is colomn 18. It is in Period 1; row 1. Its atomic number is 2 and at room temperature it is in a state of Gas. Its melting point is -272.2 Degrees Celsius and its boiling point is -268.93 Degrees Celsius. This element is one of the Noble Gases. All of the Noble gases are placed in Group 18. They have a important chemical property: they are extremely nonreactive. The elements in Group 18 are: Argon, Helium, Neon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon. Fluorine is in group 17 and is in the Halogens’ family. The halogens are found on the left hand side of the noble gases. They are the 5 toxic and non-metallic elements. They are Flurine, Cholorine, Bromine, Iodine and astatine. Even though that these lements are similar, they all have a different appearance. Fluorine, also the first element in the group is pale yellow/brown. Chlorine is pale green, Bromine is more red-brown, Iodine is violet and Astatine(last element) is black or metallic. Even though Hydrogen is placed in the same colomn as the Alkali metals, it is not a Alkali metal. Some people say that Hydrogen is on its self, but it incorrect to say that. It has the same sort of reactivity with Lithium and Sodium. It is also at the top because it is number 1 with only one proton and electron. The periodic table affects our daily life in an indirect way. Most of us probably won’t use the table during your daily life, but it does help scientists find our much more things. Due to its great layout and arrangements, scientists can easily use it to study elements and find out more about them. All elements contribute to our daily life without us knowing. In the future, scientists hope to find out more elements and add it to the periodic table of elements and hopefully explain the mysteries of our world. 1276 Words

"Group 17: The Halogens." Chemwiki. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <>. "Group 18: The Noble Gases." - Chemwiki. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. < "Periodic Table." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 21 Nov. 2013. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. <>. "Dmitri Mendeleev." ~ History of the Periodic Table. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <>. "Atomic Number and Mass Number." Atomic Number and Mass Number. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2013. <>. "Periodic Table Structure." Periodic Table Structure. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <>.

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