Assignment 1: Argument Mapping
Student: Dilyara Khusnutdinova
Professor: Pamela H. Lewis
January 23, 2013
1.Create an argument map based on the influence diagram presented in Case 1.3 and complete all the criteria provided in the exercise, beginning with this claim: “The U.S. should return to the 55- mph speed limit in order to conserve fuel and save lives.” Include in the map as many warrants, backings, objections, and rebuttals as possible.
“The U.S. should return to the 55- mph speed limit in order to conserve fuel and save lives.” Supports
Cars are most fuel efficient when driven between 30 mph and 60 mph. Above 65 mph, mileage drops sharply. This isn't rocket science. If drivers are forced to slow down, we would all use less gasoline.
Surveys show that drivers have been changing their habits in order to cut fuel costs. Above 65 mph, mileage drops sharply. This isn't rocket science. If drivers are forced to slow down, we would all use less gasoline.
Experts say reducing highway speeds from 70 mph to 60 mph would reduce gasoline consumption between 2% and 3%. That could translate into a price reduction of as much as 10%. At today's price, almost 38 cents a gallon.
The fact that this simple solution, which only requires new signs, not new technologies.
Drivers have long known that slowing down on the highway means getting more miles to the gallon.
Steve from Idaho writes:
It is about time we Americans quit whining and start facing the reality that our lifestyles are going to, have to, change! We pride ourselves on having 3.2 cars in our garage and feel it's our right to drive our big 8-cylinder SUVs. Lowering the speed limit to 55 miles an hour, times millions of cars, will save gas, reduce waste and may even bring the price of gas down a little.
The congressman from Virginia state Warner, who was the Navy secretary during the early 1970s, said that the 55-mph national speed limit was the ``centerpiece'' of America's efforts to ``work its way through'' the '70s energy crisis. Subsequent studies showed that the law lessened the nation's highway fuel consumption by 2 percent and saved up to 4,000 lives a year by reducing accidents.
Americans saved 167,000 barrels of petroleum a day when the 55-mph speed limit was in effect.
Most cars that are built today are designed to have their best fuel efficiency at 65 mph.
They already tried to reduce speed limit in Mississippi and all it did was tie up traffic and generate more speeding tickets.
| Assume that the original qualifier was certainly; indicate whether the qualifier changes as we move from a simple, static, uncontested argument to a complex, dynamic and contested argument. Consumer Reports tested the effect of higher speeds on gas mileage. David Champion, director of auto testing, found that boosting the highway speed of a 2006 Toyota Camry cut gasoline mileage dramatically: •55 m.p.h. – 40.3 miles per gallon
•65 m.p.h. – 34.9 miles per gallon
•75 m.p.h. – 29.8 miles per gallon
On a hypothetical 1,900-mile round trip from New York City to Disney World in Florida, the Camry would use 47 gallons of gas at 55 m.p.h.. But at 75 m.p.h., it would burn nearly 64 gallons – a $70 difference. If everyone could reduce their driving by just 10 percent, the savings would total nearly 1 million barrels of gasoline every day. In my opinion, the Congress should continue to allow the states to set their own speed limits. A limit of 55 mph may be reasonable in a congested state like New Jersey but impractical and unenforceable in a spacious northwestern state like Montana. The best way to reduce accidents and fatalities on roads is to enact tough drunk-driving laws, increase penalties for reckless driving (sometimes the most dangerous drivers are the slowest ones), and develop a toll system to reduce congestion. Conclusion:
Washington - Three decades ago, during...
References: Congressional Testimony. (2008, July). HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY PROGRAMS:JACQUELINE S. GILLAN Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com
Moore, Stephen (2005, April 25). Back to 55?. National Review, (7), 6, Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com
Dunn, W. N. (2012). Public policy analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Regulatory Intelligence Data. (1999, November). SLOW DOWN WHEN GOING HOME FOR THE HOLIDAYS Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com
State Department Documents / FIND. (2007, March). Resolving Kosovo Status Offers Region Path to Europe, U.S. Says Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com
Edward P. Joseph (2005, January 01). Back to the Balkans. Foreign Affairs, 111, Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com
(2009). fallacy, formal and informal. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, v 3.0. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com
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