The heart is a major organ in the body, this organ pumps blood around the body, through veins, capillaries and arteries. The blood carries oxygen to our cells and also carries waste products which include water and carbon dioxide, which are products of respiration. Blood also helps spread out salts, enzymes, urea, nutrients, hormones and heat across the body.
The structure of the heart
The heart is located between lungs and it is protected by the rib cage, it is thought to be the same size as a closed fist. The heart is protected a membrane called pericardium, this membrane contains a film of fluid which helps prevent fiction. Each side of the heart consist of an atrium and a ventricle. The right side of the heart carries deoxygenated blood through the veins to the lungs, and the left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood through the arteries around the body. The heart is separated by a septum. “Each of the four heart chambers has a major blood vessels entering or leaving it. Veins enter the atria, and arteries leave the ventricles” (Strech, Beryl; Whitehouse, Mary;, 2010) The pulmonary circulation is the circulation to and from the lungs. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood this leaves the right ventricle to go to the lungs and the blood is separated between the two lungs and the pulmonary blood then carries oxygenated blood and then enters the left atrium. The main artery which is located leaving the left ventricle is called the aorta. The main vein which is located entering the right atrium is called the vena cava. The vena cava has two part (branches), these two parts are called the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. The superior vena cava returns blood from the neck and brain. The inferior vena cava returns blood from the rest of the body. The blood can only flow one way so there are 2 sets of valves which are between th atrium and the ventricles. These valves are called the right and left