P2 development through life stages

Topics: Fetal alcohol syndrome, Mucus, Pregnancy Pages: 7 (2760 words) Published: August 10, 2015
During this assignment I am going to explain how genetic, biological, environmental, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors can influence an individual’s development. Life factors can have a huge impact on an individual’s development. This links in with the nature- nurture debate. The genetic and biological influences that I will discuss link to the nature side of the debate, whilst the socio-economic and environmental influences link to the nurture side of the debate. All the factors within the nature- nurture debate interact with each other (Stretch and Whitehouse, 2010). Genetic factors can influence a person’s physical, intellectual, emotional and social development. A gene is inherited from the mother and father. Sometimes recessive or dominant genes (alleles) can cause genetic conditions to form, such as downs syndrome or cystic fibrosis (Royal College of Nursing, 2012). Cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive and defective gene called CFTR (NHS Choices, 2012). This means that if both of the parents carry the gene, there is a 25% chance of the child having cystic fibrosis. If the child only inherits one of the genes, compared to two, they will only be a carrier and will remain unaffected (Stretch and Whitehouse, 2010). Cystic fibrosis effected 1 in every 2,500 babies that were born in 2011. There are over 9,000 people living with the condition in the UK. The condition predominantly affects people of northern European descent (NHS Choices, 2012). Cystic fibrosis causes the cells in the body to allow too much salt and water into them. This causes mucus buildups and blockages in the bodies’ tubes and passage ways. The mucus buildups mainly affect the lungs and digestive system (NHS Choices, 2012). Cystic fibrosis effects physical development because mucus builds up in the tubes of the pancreas and causes decreased digestive capabilities. If the digestive capabilities are decreased, a person may have to take dietary supplements to aid growth. An individual with cystic fibrosis is more likely to become ill due to bacterial infections in the lung, resulting in weight loss, weakness, and malnutrition (NHS Choices, 2012). In infancy malnutrition can effect growth. If growth is effected then milestones such as walking and running will be delayed. An individual with cystic fibrosis will have to take more breaks during physical activities to cough or have a drink. The individual would still have to take part in physical activity to loosen the mucus buildup and force it out of the lungs (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2012). In adulthood, cystic fibrosis can cause respiratory conditions, like bronchitis. This can lead to a decreased level of physical strength and a higher level of ill-health. The life expectancy for adults with cystic fibrosis is only 37.5, meaning they have a reduced lifespan. Cystic fibrosis can cause the chances of diabetes developing in later life to increase, because of the tubes leading from the pancreas being blocked. Some adults with cystic fibrosis may also need a lung transplant, which could lead to physical-ill health and complications. Some people with cystic fibrosis can find that they are unable to reproduce due to blocked passageways in the sexual organs. (NHS, 2012). An individual’s intellectual development isn’t usually effected by cystic fibrosis if it is being treated properly. If cystic fibrosis isn’t treated a person is at risk of malnutrition. American Pediatric researchers have found that malnutrition can stunt cognitive growth and this can effect intellectual development. Cystic fibrosis may actually aid language development, especially in childhood. This is because the child is more likely to be sick than a non-suffering child. Some people believe that if the child is sick more often they will spend more time in bed with their parents entertaining them in alternative ways, such as reading or talking (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2012). Cystic fibrosis can increase the chance of illness. If a...
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