Cancer is not a single disease with a single disease with a single cause; rather, it is a group of distinct diseases with different causes, manifestations, treatments, and prognoses. Cancer, nursing practice covers all age groups and nursing specialties and is carried out in a variety of heath care settings, including the home, community, acute care institutions, outpatient centers, rehabilitation and goals of cancer nursing, also called oncology nursing, are diverse and complex as those of any nursing specialty. Because many people associate cancer with pain and death, nurses need to identify their own reactions to cancer and set realistic goals to meet the challenges inherent in caring for patients with cancer. In addition, cancer nurses must be prepared to support patients and families through a wide range of physical, emotional, social, cultural, and spiritual crises.
Bone cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of the bone that destroys normal bone tissue. Not all bone tumors are malignant. In fact, benign (noncancerous) bone tumors are more common than malignant ones. Both malignant and benign bone tumors may grow and compress healthy bone tissue, but benign tumors do not spread, do not destroy bone tissue, and are rarely a threat to life.
Malignant tumors that begin in bone tissue are called primary bone cancer. Cancer that metastasizes (spreads) to the bones from other parts of the body, such as the breast, lung, or prostate, is called metastatic cancer, and is named for the organ or tissue in which it began. Primary bone cancer is far less common than cancer that spreads to the bones.
Cancer can begin in any type of bone tissue. Bones are made up of osteoid (hard or compact), cartilaginous (tough, flexible), and fibrous (threadlike) tissue, as well as elements ofbone marrow (soft, spongy tissue in the center of most bones).
Common types of primary bone cancer include the following:
Osteosarcoma, which arises from osteoid tissue