Republic of the Philippines
UNIVERSITY OF RIZAL SYSTEM
MM 502 (Organizational management & Theories) Name of Student
FRANCISCO A. MONTESENA
MS. NERY VIBAS DBA (CAR)
Leadership in Organizations
Leadership and management are two notions used to describe two related concepts. Managers do things right, leaders do the right thing.
A more fruitful way to think about leadership concerns the distinction between occupying a leadership position and being effective in that position. Leadership ought to be evaluated in terms of the performance of the group over time
It relates directly to the ability to build and maintain a group that performs well compared to its competition. In this presentation, these differences are discussed, explaining why both terms are thought to be similar.
A. Gender and Leadership
The Debate: Do men and women have different leadership styles?
"If you want something said, ask a man. If you want something done, ask a woman." - Margaret Thatcher
Women do have different leadership styles from men.
As Bodyshop founder Anita Roddick says: ‘I run my company according to feminine principles – principles of caring, making intuitive decisions, not getting hung up on hierarchy, having a sense of work as being part of your life, not separate from it; putting your labour where your love is, being responsible to the world in how you use your profits; recognising the bottom line should stay at the bottom’.
The problem with actually mapping these differences is that the successful male managerial stereotype is so strongly embedded in organizational life that female managers are pressured to conform to it, thereby confusing research results.
Successful managers were overwhelmingly identified exclusively with male traits. Many similar studies have been carried out since that time and all have demonstrated that the successful managerial stereotype remains male.
No one, male or female, ever identifies the successful manager as feminine. Male, and only to a slightly lesser extent, female, managers continue to describe successful managers as possessing masculine traits, such as self-confidence, competitiveness, decisiveness, aggressiveness and independence.
Many managers, both male and female, agree that sex differences in management style do exist. Interestingly both describe women’s differences in positive terms. Yet when researchers ask managers to describe their own management styles they usually find no significant differences between genders. Does this mean no difference exists? No.
There is a myth about gender and leadership capabilities. This holds that women are better team players than men; more open and mature in the way they handle sensitive issues; and more conscious of their impact on others and hence better people managers than men.
But the myth is false. An international survey by Cranfield comparing top male and female managers in the private and public sector clearly showed that women are no better or worse than men in the practice of management and leadership. It all depends on the man or woman in question, and the organisation for which they work.
B. THE MANAGER/ LEADER AS A PERSON: Personality Traits, Values, Attitudes, Moods and Emotional Intelligence
Ralph Stogdill, one of the premier leadership researchers concluded that there are no consistent patterns of traits that characterize leaders in all situations. However he did reach some general conclusions in the following areas:
INTELLIGENCE - Leaders are somewhat more intelligent, perform better at academic tasks and possess superior judgement and decision-making abilities than followers.
PHYSICAL TRAITS – Results were extremely contradictory in relating height, weight, age, strength, and...
Excerpted with permission from "Developing Leaders & Leadership in Organizations," by David A. Cole, LILA Insights, July 2005.
Drucker, P.E. 1974. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. New York: Harper and Row
Forsythe, G. B. 1992. The preparation of strategic leaders. Parameters (Spring)
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