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Organizational Culture

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Organizational Culture
Three general types of organizational culture—constructive, passive-defensive, aggressive-defensive:
The organizational cultural inventory measures 12 sets of normative beliefs or shared behavioral expectations associated with three general types of cultures, Constructive, Passive-Defensive, and Aggressive-Defensive.
Constructive cultures—in which members are encouraged to interact with others and approach tasks in ways that will help them meet their higher-order satisfaction needs, are characterized by Achievement, Self-actualizing, Humanistic-Encouraging, and Affiliative norms. Constructive styles strongly associated with satisfaction and low stress (Cooke & Szumal, 1993).

 Achievement: pursuing a standard of excellence.
 Self-actualizing: thinking in unique and independent way.
 Humanistic-encouraging: helping other to grow and develop.
 Affiliate: dealing with others in a friendly way

Passive-Defensive cultures—in which members believe they must interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security, are characterized by Approval, Conventional, Dependent, and Avoidance norms. Passive-Defensive styles associated with dissatisfaction and high stress (Cooke & Szumal, 1993).

 Approval: going along with others
 Conventional: always following policies and practices.
 Dependent: pleasing those in positions of authority
 Avoidance: waiting for others to act first

Aggressive-Defensive cultures—in which members are expected to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and security, are characterized by Oppositional, Power, Competitive, and Perfectionistic norms. Aggressive-Defensive styles weakly related to certain measures of dissatisfaction and stress (Cooke & Szumal, 1993).

 Oppositional: pointing out flaws
 Power: building up one’s power base
 Competitive: turning the job into a contest
 Perfectionistic: doing things perfectly

Typology of Organizational Values:

In economically oriented systems where productivity

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