Dorothea Elizabeth Orem: Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory
Dorothea E. Orem was known as a pioneer in the development of distinctive nursing knowledge and as one of foremost America’s nursing theorist (Alligood & Tomey, 2010, Fawcett, 2000). Her self-care deficit theory which is a general theory of nursing, is used widely in nursing today (Hartweg, 1995). Orem’s contributions played significant role in shifting nursing away from a medical model of practice and to gain recognition as a legitimate science (Chinn & Kramer, 2004). The Four Metaparadigm
Orem used multiple terms while referring to humans such as individual, patient, multiperson unit, self-care agent, dependent-care agent (Fawcett, 2005). Health
Her definition of health directly contradicts, as experiences of some of the patient’s needs and requirements are varied and different (George, 1995). Nursing
Orem viewed Nursing as an art, community services and a technology. Nurses in order to help individuals or groups under their care, deliberately selected and performed their nursing actions (Meleis, 1997). Environment
Orem stated that it was the total environment and not any single aspect of it that made it developmental, hence it is argued that she undescored the possible contribution of environment to a person’s development (Fawcett, 2005). It is significant to mention the steps she specifically identified for the nursing process and involvement to intellectual and practical phases (Balabagno, et al, 2006). Has six basic concepts out of which self care,self-care agency, therapeutic self-care demand, and self care deficit are associated with patient, whereas nursing agency and nursing system are associated with the nurses and their actions (Berbiglia & Banfield, 2006).
Definition of theoretical terms are precise and congruent throughout and its language is consistent with 21st century (Berbiglia & Banfield, 2006).However, Mendoza, et al (2004) stated that majority of the students are...
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