Topics: Scotland / Pages: 9 (2228 words) / Published: May 7th, 2013
Сomponent of the UK - Scotland.

Geographical position. Caledonia – a Roman name of Scotland, Land of Cakes – a name given to Scotland which is famous for its oatmeal cakes, is a country in the north of Britain. Its total area is 78800 sq. km. Besides Scotland includes several islands: the Outer and Inner Hebrides (Western islands) , the Orkneys, Shetlands. Scotland is bounded on the west and north by the Atlantic ocean, on the east by the North sea, on the south by England and the Irish sea. The highest mountains are the Grampians, a range of the mountains in the north of Scotland which include the highest mountain Ben Nevis. The chief rivers are the Clyde, the Tay, the Spey, the Tweed, the Forth of Firth. The major lakes are the largest Loch Lomond and Loch Ness, a long lake which extends for 23 miles (35km).Scottish lakes called lochs are long and narrow, in the past all those lochs joined the sea. Scotland has important commerce, mines of iron and coal, cotton, woolen, linen, jute manufactures, whisky distilleries, shipbuilding , oil and gas refineries. North sea oil and gas have brought more employment to the region. With its lochs, mountains, islands and castles Scotland is a beautiful country and tourism is one of the important industries. About a fourth of the total area of the country is under cultivation or in pasture. The main Scottish crop is oats. Sheep raising is in the Highlands. There is a small scale farming called crofting. There are no branches of industry in Highland Scotland because of its mountainous relief and the winters are long, the summers are wet, the land is sour for real farming.
History The earliest people living were Iberians. The Celts invaded in the 7 century BC. The Romans called people who lived in the north the Picts. Scots came from Ireland and settled in the west. In the 9 century the Scots and Picts were united into a kingdom called Scotia and fought against the Viking raiders. In 1296 Scotland was

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