One-child policy in China
Submitted within the study programmeBachelor of Science in
For the moduleACWE – Academic Writing in English
ExpertValerie Faminoff Mangold
In 1960 Chinese were allowed to have as many children as possible. It was even a good omen for the country1. In 1979 the Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping established the one-child policy because of the overpopulation. His aim was to limit China’s population growth. The current state of the Chines population is about more than 1.3 billion people, and thus the largest population in the word. By 2015, the population of the country should be less than 1.3 billion.
The one-child policy has the following features:
The policy applies to about 35 per cent of citizens and restricts couples to have more than one child The policy only applies to registered urban families
Multiple births (twins, triplets etc.) are barred from the policy Parents whose first child is physically or mentally handicapped can have a second one without paying a tax Parents whose first child dies can have a second one without paying a tax Foreigner living in China are exempt from the law
2. Result of implementation
Table : Fertility Rate in China (Source: Fertility Rate in China2).
China’s total fertility rate from 1950 to 2010 fell from about 6.5 children per woman to about 1.8 children. Thanks the birth control China could make a major advance in reducing their overpopulation. On the basis of the one-child policy the Chinese Government had prevented the birth of 400 million babies in 2008 and it has also positive effects on the global warming3. All the people living in China need water, food, education, job and many other requirements. The policy prevented a high unemployment rate and helped China to have a better economically situation.4 The children get a lot of personal attention and many resources to succeed.5 Moreover women are able to concentrate on their careers and can give their best on the workplace.
The one-child program theoretically is voluntary, but the government imposes punishments and heavy fines on people who do not follow the rules. Parents with extra children can be fined, depending on the region, from $370 to $12,800 (many times the average annual income for many ordinary Chinese). If the fine is not paid sometimes the couples land is taken away, their house is destroyed, they lose their jobs or the child is not allowed to attend school.
Women who have children without permission, and are found out, are often forced to have abortions or sterilizations. Moreover children born to parents that have already one child often have ill-effects. It is possible that they do not become a birth certificate and proper documentation. Without those papers children can not enter school, find work as an adult or do most of anything legally.
Sometimes parents which are involved in religious activities or illegal political are punished. They do not get their children birth certificates and documentation, even if they have not exceeded the limit of the one-child policy. A great number of parents with more than two children do not declare all their children. In a suburb of Beijing a mother told she only declared her oldest child to avoid troubles. “Black permit” children are children who are born and raised in secret and never registered with the government. Those undocumented children are shuffled around among uncles, aunts and siblings to avoid problems with the Family Planning Association. Women who are called “birth guerrillas” are women which are pregnant and hide in the countryside until they give birth. It is believed that there are 6 million undocumented children in China. The majority of them are girls and the third of three daughters6.
Table : Gender in China by Age Group (Source: Chinese population by gender and age7).
There is an unbalanced ratio between boys and girls in today’s China because numerous girls were killed in the past. The result of it is the low percentage of women over 60 years which is visible on the chart above. This fact caused conflict because boys could not find a wife. From these reasons, today and in years to come, China’s population will become a greying community. To support China’s elderly the country’s resources will have to be redirected. Therefore the economy will decline8. 2.3. A shocking case of forced abortion
One shocking case of forced abortion is the case of Feng Jinmei. In the seven pregnancy month with her second daughter she had the option to pay a fine of 40’000 Yuan and keep the baby but her family could not afford it. The Family Planning officials forced her into a car and brought her into a hospital where she became an injection into her belly. 30 hours later she gave birth to the dead baby. The body of her aborted daughter was next to her on her bed. Feng Jinmei is under medical treatment and her entire family is traumatized.
The dramatic consequences of China's one-child policy ensures riot in the population. Especially the developing broad class of wealthy is the view that the government had no right to tell them how many children they can get. 3. Interview with He Xiaofei
He Xiaofei is an exchange student from China who studies at the University of Applied Sciences in Berne. She is 20 years old and accepted to answer some question about the one-child policy. As an only child He Xiaofei benefits from the attention, love and a good education from her parents. Her family would like to have a second child but they cannot afford the fine. Her opinion about the policy is that the population rises to slow. The young generation has to support at least 8 old people. He Xiaofei knows a family who did not respect the policy. They had to pay a fine and no family member is allowed to work for the government. Despite the policy she could not imagine to emigrate from China but if she had a good job opportunity she would live abroad from a time period. She believes that this policy is not the right way to reduce the overpopulation because the older generation brings to many problems. From her point of view the policy is too strict for every country in the world and it is not fair for the people in China to have this limitation.
The Chinese population is an important part of the world population. Therefore they should control the population growth but the one-child policy may not be the best solution. The problems of the one child policy exceed the successes. The couples in China should have the right to reproduce and found a family. The one child policy violates the human rights. A solution could be to keep the fine for a second child but with an amount who almost every family could afford. In our shocking case it is impossible for us to understand how people can act so inhuman. Just because the family had not enough money to pay the fine, the Family Planning officials had not the right to kill the baby. To kill so many babies is no solution for the Chinese overpopulation. The psychic implication affects the life of many young people.
The length of this text, including chapter 1 heading and up to the declaration is XXXX words.
We hereby certify that we have independently written this term paper. Any text passages which were not written by us are quoted as citations and specific references to their origins are made.
All used sources (including images, graphics, etc.) are included in the bibliography.
Berne, 19 December 2012
http://geography.about.com/od/populationgeography/a/onechild.htm (Stand 28.09.12). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-child_policy (Stand 28.09.12). http://history.ocde.us/historyday/2008/2711/impactnow.html (Stand 09.10.12). http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=128&catid=4&subcatid=15 (Stand 09.10.12). http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-chinas-one-child-policy.htm (Stand 10.10.2012). http://debatepedia.idebate.org/en/index.php/Debate:China_%22one_child%22_policy (Stand 10.10.2012). http://geochinaonechildpolicy.blogspot.ch/ (Stand 18.10.2012). http://braddlibby.wordpress.com/2011/07/07/the-one-child-policys-effect-on-chinese-fertility/ (Stand 18.10.2012). http://spectator.org/archives/2012/06/15/chinas-one-child-policy-two-ca (Stand 19.10.2012).
http://www.china-mike.com/chinese-culture/society/one-child-policy (Stand 18.10.2012).
Interview with He Xiaofei
Interview with He Xiaofei:
1. Does the one-child policy have any impact on your life or family? Yes. Both my parents put all their attention on me so that I can get best education and most love. My family would like to have two children but because of the policy, only one child. 2. What is your opinion about the one-child policy
The population rises slower but too slow. If I married another single kid, we 2 have to feed at least 8 people. 3. Did you know somebody who did not respected this policy?
3.1. If you answer is yes, what consequences had this for the family? Impose a fine and no family member is allowed to work for the government. 4. Could you imagine emigrating from China?
Maybe I will have a job which will fly over the world but finally I will be back. 5. Do you think this policy is the right way to reduce the overpopulation? No
5.1. If your answer is yes, why?
5.2. If your answer is no, why not?
The problem of population aging brings to many troubles.
6. Should other countries have the same policy?
Maybe some countries need to control their population but they can use some other ways. This policy is too strict 7. Is it fair for the people in China to have this limitation? No