Nursing Theorist: Betty Neuman
Nursing Theorist: Betty Neuman
Nursing theories are the basic concepts that define nursing practice and provide the explanation to why nurses do what they do. Nurses are exposed to theories everyday in clinical practice. During any given day, a nurse will utilize multiple nursing theories. These theories guide how a nurse treats patients, how tasks are performed, assessments completed and interventions established. By studying nursing theory, it allows the nurse to sharpen critical thinking skills. One such theorist is Betty Neuman. Betty Neuman Educational background and career path
Used widely in today’s nursing, Betty Neuman began developing her system many years ago. In 1947 she received RN Diploma from Peoples Hospital School of Nursing, Akron, Ohio. She then moved to California and gained experience as a hospital, staff, and head nurse; school nurse and industrial nurse; and as a clinical instructor in medical-surgical, critical care and communicable disease nursing. In 1957 Dr. Neuman attended the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) with double major in psychology and public health. She received BS in nursing from UCLA. In 1966 she received Masters Degree in Mental Health; Public Health Consultation from UCLA ("Nurses Info," “n.d.”, p. 1) Neuman developed a widely used theory model named, Neuman’s Systems Model in 1970. There are many aspects of today’s nursing that uses Neuman’s model. Define Neuman’s metaparadigm in nursing
A metaparadigm (or major concept) in the application of Neuman’s system model addresses the person, environment, health, and nursing. The concepts combine to give the nurse an idea of how the client can use prevention to maintain wellness while being exposed to stressors. One example is preventing a pre-diabetic patient from developing into a diabetic patient. Person: Client system was chosen because it can be applied to the individual, family or population at risk. Environment: The internal environment, external environment, and the created environment. (Masters, 2014) Health: A continuum of wellness to illness (Masters, 2014, p. 63) Nursing: promotes the retention of client system wellness (Alligood, 2010, p. 242)
Describe 3 assumptions of the theory
Nurse’s actions are focused on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.(Masters, 2014, p. 63) Primary: patient reaction to prevention as intervention, goal reformation, The nurse must evaluate the patient’s readiness to accept the diagnosis. The nurse and patient must discuss the plan of care weighing the risk and benefits of the interventions, goals, and outcomes. Secondary: monitor weight loss, monitor A1C, monitor lab work. Monitoring the secondary preventions helps the nurse monitor the patient’s progress. Tertiary: reinforce teaching, The nurse reinforces teaching in the patient’s areas of weakness. In the pre-diabetic patient, there needs to a sustained lifestyle change to find success with the interventions. Clients present a normal range of responses to the environment that represent wellness and stability. (Masters, 2014, p. 63) Successful maintenance ultimately depends on one’s ability to anticipate and deal with a wide range of potential stressors, before they can threaten one’s diabetes management and long-term health. (Thoolen, B., De Ridder, D., Bensing, J., Gorter, K., & Rutten, G.], 2009, p. 237) Stressors attack flexible lines of defense and then normal lines of defense. (Masters, 2014, p. 63) A new diagnosis can lead to many stressors that attack the lines of defense. Knowledge deficit, low income, access to healthcare, coping behaviors and patterns, expectations of self, current fears, and a bland diet are a few stressors that may interfere with the patient’s ability to successfully live with their diagnosis. Interventions should address the stressors. The long term goal is to help educate the patient, decrease stress and acceptance of long...
References: Alligood, M. R. (2010). Neuman’s system model in nursing practice. In Nursing theory utilization and application (4th ed., pp. 235-257). Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier.
Betty Neuman. (“n.d.”). Retrieved from http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_person_neuman_betty.htm
Haggart, M. (1993). A critical analysis of Neuman’s System’s model in relation to public health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1917-1922. Retrieved from EBSCO
Healthy people initiatives 2020. (“n.d.”). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from https://www.healthypeople.gov/node/3514/objectives#4123
Masters, K. (2014). Framework for professional nursing practice. In A. Harvey (Ed.), Role development in professional nursing practice (3rd ed., pp. 47-82). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.
Thoolen, B., De Ridder, D., Bensing, J., Gorter, K., & Rutten, G. (2009). Beyond good intentions: The role of proactive coping in achieving sustained behavioural change in the context of diabetes management. Psychology & Health. Psychology and health, 24(3), 237-254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870440701864504
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