Notes for Civ 2

Topics: Thirty Years' War, Charles I of England, Louis XIV of France Pages: 19 (3156 words) Published: March 10, 2014
Henry IV. (1589-1610)
He was assassinated by a Catholic
Was a Huguenots (calvinist)
James 1:8. Double minded main
Matthew 16:26. Gain whole world and lose soul
Advisor was de sulle
Cardinal Rochelieu
Chief council to Louis XIII (1614-43)
Great cardinal
Real ruler of France
Founded French absolute monarchy
Raison d'état - "reason of the state"
The good of the state is the supreme good
"Man is immortal, salvation is hereafter; the state has no immorality, it's salvation is now or never" Objectives for Richelieu
Destroy the power of the Huguenots (French Protestants)
Crush the great nobles
Intendants
Crown-appointed commoners who were an affront to the proud nobility. The nobility lost their power to these hired bureaucrats Exclude the Habsburg's (Austrian Catholics) from French internal politics Guilin Mazzarini

"Mazarin" - Chief Minister (Louis XIV 1643-1715)
Trained by Richeleiu
Increased taxes to continue war with Spain
Hated because he was Italian
Fronde
A children's game in Paris - throwing dirt at passing coaches A disorganized rebellion against the monarchy prior to 1789
Bosons legacy
By 1659, Mazarin defeats the Spanish
Louis XIV marries the daughter of Philip IV of Spain
France becomes the leading power on Europe
In 1661, Mazarin dies
Louis XIV announces he will be his own first minister and will rule as Absolute Monarch England (1603-1660)
A different conception of sovereignty
While France pursued absolute monarchy, England was developing a constitutional monarchy. House of Commons
The Lower House
Represented the landed gentry of the countryside and the richer merchants if the towns Paid bureaucrats
More unity between classes
Tudors
The Tudor line ended with Queen Elizabeth I
James I, son of Mary of Scotland, became first king of the Steward line

James I
King of Scotland and of England - Protestant
1611 KJV Bible
Weak politician
Struggled against Parliament over religion, money and foreign policy Charles 1 (1625-49)
Levied forced loans and imprisoned those who objects
Lead England into civil war
Parliament passed Petition of Right
The king cannot:
Levy taxes or loans without consent of Parliament
Imprison arbitrarily
William Laud
Religious advisor to Charles I
Challenged the Calvinists predestination
Denounced by Puritans and Scottish nobility
Called a "disguised Catholic" by his enemies
The "long parliament" (1640-1653)
Executed Laud
Required king to summon Parliament at least every three years Outlawed all non-parliamentary tax
Destroyed absolute monarchy in England
English Civil War and Revolution (1642-1649)
Parliament vs King Charles I
Parliament:
Puritans, gentry and merchant
Roundheads
Led by Cromwell
King Charles I:
Nobility and Anglicans
Cavaliers
Initially successful
Oliver Cromwell
Militant Calvinist
Won Civil War
Executed Charles I in 1649
Took the title Lord Protector
Fought against Irish, Scots, and Parliaments
Instruments of Government
Cromwell written constitution
First such document in the history of a major state
Made England a military dictatorship
Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes (1651)
Advocates a contract theory of government
The sovereigns power was absolute and unquestioned

Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
Last great religious war fought in Europe
Four successive wars
Fought primarily in what is now Germany
At various points involved most of the countries of Europe
Peace of Augsburg
Had ended the previous round of religious war in Central Europe Divided the German states between Catholics and Lutheran
Frederick V
Calvinists leader of Protestant Union of German cities
Son in law of James I of England

2/5/14

Phase 1: Revolt in Bohemia, Ferdinand's Role
Catholic king of Bohemia
Last chance for the Holy Roman Empire
"Defenestration of Prague" - threw Protestant governors from windows Defeated Frederick V
Stamped out Protestantism
Phase 2: Denmarks Involvement
Denmark...
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