(Non-wind powered) Self-Propelled Vehicles
A self-propelled vehicle is one that does not need man or animal power to run. Every modern vehicle now falls under this category, with the most notable one being the automobile. An automobile is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor . Many of the denominations for automobiles include motor car, auto car, or car. Numerous dictionaries and sources that define the word automobile, state that they run on an internal-combustion engine. While this is true, not all automobiles run on gasoline or petroleum. The electric car and steam engines have shown that many alternatives exist to power vehicles. Dictionaries also affirm that the purpose of an automobile is to transport passengers. Advancements in technology are rapidly altering this. There are roughly 806 million cars and light trucks worldwide today and growing quickly in countries such as India and China. This has both a good and bad impact in today’s society. Self-propelled vehicles have always needed a chemical and mechanical process in order to run, but modern vehicles also require other factors such as electronics. Objectives
-To explain the history of self-propelled vehicles; and their scientific function. -To describe the impact of self-propelled vehicles in developing technology and potential in present and future engineering. Development
Technological applications of self-propelled powered vehicles: -Advancements in mechanical efficiency.
-Development of artificial intelligence.
-Engineering of alternative energy sources and development in energy efficiency. -Development of better materials used to build & manufacture them.
The first self-propelled vehicle is believed to have been creates by a Jesuit named Ferdinand Verbiest. He left from Flanders (what is now Belgium) to go on a Jesuit mission to China during the Qing Dynasty. He was an adept astronomer and mathematician and convinced Chinese officials that European science was more advanced than theirs. Chinese official Kangxi Emperor greatly admired Verbiest’s work and would summon him frequently since he was also very interested in mathematics and sciences. Verbiest was deeply fascinated with steam and designed a steam-propelled trolley for the Chinese emperor in 1672. The 65 cm long vehicle generated gas in a ball-shaped boiler, which had a pipe at the top that directed the steam to a small turbine that moved the rear wheels. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, a French military engineer from the 18th century, invented the first vehicle that could carry a passenger and had to be operated by one. Starting in 1765, he commenced to experiment with steam engines in order to create vehicles with the purpose of transporting cannons. In 1770, Cugnot was able to successfully develop an engine that transformed the reciprocating motion of a steam piston into rotational motion by course of a ratchet assembly. It had space for up to four passengers, was able to travel 7.8 km per hour, and weighed about 2.5 tons. I had three wheels: one in the front, which supported the large boiler and driving mechanism, and two in the back. This vehicle called the “Fardier” was very inefficient due to bad weight distribution. The Fardier was supposed to be able to drive through terrain and steep hills, which made the French military abandon the project after running many tests with it. The Fardier still exists today and can be seen at the National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts in Paris, France. Throughout the 19th century, inventors and engineers were developing many different prototypes for steam cars. Locomotives and trains were developed and became very popular during this century. Electrical cars were also built but were inefficient due to being powered by non-rechargeable primary cells. Many patents were granted both in England and the United States for the use of rail tracks as conductors...
Bibliography:  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): Dictionary.com, "automobile," in Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Source location: HarperCollins Publishers.http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/automobile. Available:http://dictionary.reference.com. Accessed: July 03, 2012.
-James Edward Homans. Self-propelled vehicles: a practical treatise on the theory, construction, operation, care and management of all forms of automobiles (7th edition). The University of Michigan. August 2008 . T. Audel & Company, 1910. Digitized on: 7 July 2005.
-(NA). “How Steam Locomotives work (How steam engines work)”. Haworth Village. (ND). Web. 3 July 2012. http://www.haworth-village.org.uk/steam-trains/locomotive_works/steam-boiler.asp
-(NA). “How does an electric motor work?”. HyperPhysics. (ND). Web. 4 July 2012. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/mothow.html
-Jeff Karr. “How Gasoline Engines work”. Automedia.com. (ND). Web. 5 July 2012. http://www.automedia.com/How_Gasoline_Engines_Work/ccr20020501eh/1
-Marshall Brian. “How Steam Engines work”. Howstuffworks. (ND). Web. 5 July 2012. http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/steam1.htm
-Mary Bellis. “Automobile History”. About.com. (ND). Web 5 July 2012. http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventions/a/Car_History.htm
Please join StudyMode to read the full document