Sir John B. Gurdon was born in Dippenhall in 1933. He is a British developmental biologist, which is the discipline of organism grow and develop. He has outstanding performance in research in nuclear transplantation and cloning, who has already been awarded of Laker Award in 2009.
Prof. Shina Yamanaka was born in Japan in 1962. He is the director of Centre for IPS cell research and Application. In addition, he is a professor at the Institute for Frontier Medical Science at Kyoto University. He won Wolf Prize in Medicine in 2011 and Millennium Technology Prize in 2012.Winning of Nobel Prize can give compliment to him once again.
This year Nobel Prize praises the discovery of principle of converting mature cell to stem cell, especially the pluripotent one. If this kind of technology becomes more mature and can apply to medicine comprehensively, human health must be beneficial.
In the field of Biology, Stem cells can be found in all muticellular organisms. Every organ, tissue and cell in the human body is made up by cells. These cells are built up by stem cells. It can divide and differentiate into 200 types of cell the adult human body holds by mitosis. There are two types of stem cells, they are unlimited stem cells (also known as embryonic stem cells) and limited stem cells (also known as adult stem cells). The former which is the foundation of all body structures is found from embryo. The later can be found from bone marrow and umbilical cord blood.
Stem cells have wide uses in medicine. Touchteet (2002)