The answers given in these papers are in bullet form, you MUST pay attention to the key ACTION VERBS in order to give full answers. I take no responsibility for answers given in exams in the style portrayed in the PRACTICE questions and answers written by myself.
(i) Outline which factors to consider while carrying out the risk assessment
Factors to identify:
Activities being undertaken
Likelihood and severity of the harm that may be caused
Number of employees exposed and exposure frequency
Competence of persons carrying out activities
Evaluation of existing control measures
Competence of person doing the assessment
(ii) Explain what is required for the assessment to be ‘suitable and sufficient’
It should identify the significant risks arising out of the work activity It should identify and prioritise the measures that need to be taken to comply with relevant statutory provisions It should be appropriate to the nature of the work
It should remain valid for a reasonable period of time
(iii) Identify the various circumstances that may require the risk assessment to be reviewed at a later date
Changes to work processes or methods
Introduction of new plant
Changes to production scale
New information on hazardous substances or processes
Accidents or ill-health becoming apparent
Results of monitoring, inspections, audits and health surveillance Changes in legislation
Changes affecting personnel i.e. disabilities, young persons and pregnancy At routine intervals i.e. 6 monthly or yearly review
Outline possible consequences of not achieving good standards of health and safety.
Recognition of the financial and legal implications of poor health and safety performance should be outlined with details of:
Costs of accidents and ill-health in terms of lost production Loss of key personnel
Replacement staff costs
Higher insurance premiums
Equipment/plant damage and replacement costs
Legal defence costs
Public and employee relations
A machine operator is involved in an accident by coming into contact with a dangerous part of a machine, describe:
(i) The possible immediate causes
Inadequate or non-existent safety devices
(ii) The possible root (underlying) causes
Inadequate risk assessment
Personal factors – stress, fatigue and the influence of drugs and alcohol Poor management systems
Selection of personnel
Selection of correct equipment
Identify EIGHT informative sources that may be consulted while developing a safe system of work.
Approved Codes of Practice – ACOP’s
European and other official standards
Industry and trade literature
Results of risk assessments
Health surveillance records
The employees involved
Enforcement agencies and other experts
Outline reasons why verbal communication may not be clearly understood by an employee
This is an outline question which should give reasoned answers by way of examples and not just a simple list. Reasons should include:
Noise and distractions
Use of technical jargon
Complexity of information
Communication is ambiguous
Lack of attention
Lengthy communication chains
a) Identify the factors that could place a greater risk of accidents at work on young persons.
Lack of knowledge
Lack of experience
Lack of training
Physical development of the individual
Nature of young persons to take risks
Peer group pressures in young persons is generally greater than that of more experienced individuals
b) Outline possible measures to minimise the risks to young persons at work
Risk assessment specific to young persons
Careful supervision by experienced and responsible workers
Specific health surveillance
Clear lines of communication
Restriction on type of work and hours worked
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995:
(i) List FOUR types of major injury with reference to the above regulation
Fractures (other than fingers, thumbs and toes)
Loss of sight
Electrocution resulting in resuscitation
Hospitalisation for more than 24 hours
Fatal injuries are a special case and DO NOT come under the definition of ‘major injury’.
(ii) Outline procedures for reporting a major injury to the appropriate authority
Who reports accident and how
Notification by quickest means possible (usually telephone or fax) Use of form F2508
Within 10 days of incident
(i) Define ‘ergonomics’
There are many acceptable definitions:
The study of the interaction between workers and the work environment Making the job or task fit the person
The study of how people interact with machinery or equipment within the workplace Ergonomics is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use Fitting the job to the people who have to do it, through the design of equipment and procedures Fitting the person to the job, through the use of placement procedures or training The study of how the workplace relates to human functions
(ii) List SIX observations of a machine operators station which could suggest that the machine has not been ergonomically designed
The need for excessive force or repetitive movements
The need to stretch or stoop
Machine controls in awkward positions
Controls unmarked or poorly marked and functions not obvious Lack of visibility by the operator
Size or weight of work item making it difficult to position or because of type of machine protection Difficulty in changing, adjusting or cleaning machine tools
(i) Explain the meaning of ‘so far as is reasonably practicable’
Balance of risk against cost
(ii) State the employer’s general and specific duties under section 2 of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974
General duty - "to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work with all his employees".
a) Provision and maintenance of safe plant and equipment and a safe system of work.
b) Safe arrangements and absence of risks to health for storage, transport, handling and use of articles and substances.
c) Provision of adequate instruction, training, supervision and information necessary to ensure the health and safety at work of employees.
d) Provision and maintenance of a safe workplace including a safe means of access and egress.
e) Provision of a safe working environment and adequate welfare facilities and arrangements.
Provide a written statement of a safety policy (except where there are less than five employees).
Part 4, 5 & 6:
Consult with trade union appointed safety representatives and elected representatives of employee safety.
Where requested in writing by at least two safety representatives, to set up a safety committee.
List what may be considered on assessment of a contractor’s health and safety competence.
Quality and content of health and safety policy and risk assessments Level of training and qualifications of staff including health and safety staff Accident/enforcement statistics
Membership of official bodies
Equipment maintenance records
Detailed proposals of work to be undertaken
Ability to provide safe systems of work for the job i.e. resources Overall health and safety culture
Their arrangements to fulfil their duties with respect of the health and safety plan
(i) Define the term ‘negligence’
Breach of common law legal duty of care to exercise reasonable care towards others, resulting in loss, damage or injury Or, a tort involving unreasonably careless conduct
Key defining case - Donoghue V Stevenson (1932).
(ii) Outline the THREE conditions for an employee to prove a case of negligence against an employer
1.Defendant under duty of care to claimant (injured party)
3.Result of breach - claimant suffered damage or loss