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My Experiment in Stoichiometry

By CUTEANGEL01 Feb 26, 2013 1315 Words
Name: Angelica G. Morales
Date performed: February 20, 2013
Date submitted: February 27, 2013

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Stoichiometry (pron.: /ˌstɔɪkiˈɒmɨtri/) is a branch of chemistry that deals with the relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. In a balanced chemical reaction, the relations among quantities of reactants and products typically form a ratio of positive integers. For example, in a reaction that forms ammonia (NH3), exactly one molecule of nitrogen (N2) reacts with three molecules of hydrogen (H2) to produce two molecules of NH3: N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

This particular kind of stoichiometry - describing the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions - is known as reaction stoichiometry. In the example above, reaction stoichiometry describes the 1:3:2 ratio of molecules of nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia. Stoichiometry can be used to determine quantities such as the amount of products (in mass, moles, volume, etc.) that can be produced with given reactants and percent yield (the percentage of the given reactant that is made into the product). Stoichiometry calculations can predict how elements and components diluted in a standard solution react in experimental conditions. Stoichiometry is founded on the law of conservation of mass: the mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products. Composition stoichiometry describes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds. For example, composition stoichiometry describes the nitrogen to hydrogen ratio in the compound ammonia: 1 mol of ammonia consists of 1 mol of nitrogen and 3 mol of hydrogen. As the nitrogen atom is about 14 times heavier than the hydrogen atom, the mass ratio is 14:3, thus 17 kg of ammonia contains 14 kg of nitrogen and 3 kg of hydrogen. A stoichiometric amount or stoichiometric ratio of a reagent is the optimum amount or ratio where, assuming that the reaction proceeds to completion: 1. All of the reagent is consumed,

2. There is no shortfall of the reagent,
3. There is no excess of the reagent.
A non-stoichiometric mixture, where reactions have gone to completion, will have only the limiting reagent consumed completely. While almost all reactions have integer-ratio stoichiometry in amount of matter units (moles, number of particles), some nonstoichiometric compounds are known that cannot be represented by a ratio of well-defined natural numbers. These materials therefore violate the law of definite proportions that forms the basis of stoichiometry along with the law of multiple proportions. Gas stoichiometry deals with reactions involving gases, where the gases are at a known temperature, pressure, and volume, and can be assumed to be ideal gases. For gases, the volume ratio is ideally the same by the ideal gas law, but the mass ratio of a single reaction has to be calculated from the molecular masses of the reactants and products. In practice, due to the existence of isotopes, molar masses are used instead when calculating the mass ratio. Contents * 1 Etymology * 2 Definition * 3 Molar proportions * 4 Determining Amount of Product * 4.1 Further examples * 5 Stoichiometric ratio * 6 Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield * 6.1 Example * 7 Different stoichiometries in competing reactions * 8 Stoichiometric coefficient * 9 Stoichiometry matrix * 10 Gas stoichiometry * 11 Stoichiometry of combustion * 12 References * 13 External links| Etymology

The term stoichiometry is derived from the Greek words στοιχεῖον stoicheion "element" and μέτρον metron "measure". In patristic Greek, the word Stoichiometria was used by Nicephorus to refer to the number of line counts of the canonical New Testament and some of the Apocrypha. Definition

Stoichiometry rests upon the very basic laws that help to understand it better, i.e., law of conservation of mass, the law of definite proportions (i.e., the law of constant composition) and the law of multiple proportions. In general, chemical reactions combine in definite ratios of chemicals. Since chemical reactions can neither create nor destroy matter, nor transmute one element into another, the amount of each element must be the same throughout the overall reaction. For example, the amount of element X on the reactant side must equal the amount of element X on the product side. Chemical reactions, as macroscopic unit operations, consist of simply a very large number of elementary reactions, where a single molecule reacts with another molecule. As the reacting molecules (or moieties) consist of a definite set of atoms in an integer ratio, the ratio between reactants in a complete reaction is also in integer ratio. A reaction may consume more than one molecule, and the stoichiometric number counts this number, defined as positive for products (added) and negative for reactants (removed).[1] Different elements have a different atomic mass, and as collections of single atoms, molecules have a definite molar mass, measured with the unit mole (6.02 × 1023 individual molecules, Avogadro's constant). By definition, carbon-12 has a molar mass of 12 g/mol. Thus to calculate the stoichiometry by mass, the number of molecules required for each reactant is expressed in moles and multiplied by the molar mass of each to give the mass of each reactant per mole of reaction. The mass ratios can be calculated by dividing each by the total in the whole reaction. Molar proportions

Stoichiometry is often used to balance chemical equations (reaction stoichiometry). For example, the two diatomic gases, hydrogen and oxygen, can combine to form a liquid, water, in an exothermic reaction, as described by the following equation: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

Reaction stoichiometry describes the 2:1:2 ratio of hydrogen, oxygen, and water molecules in the above equation. The term stoichiometry is also often used for the molar proportions of elements in stoichiometric compounds (composition stoichiometry). For example, the stoichiometry of hydrogen and oxygen in H2O is 2:1. In stoichiometric compounds, the molar proportions are whole numbers. Stoichiometry is not only used to balance chemical equations but also used in conversions, i.e., converting from grams to moles, or from grams to millilitres. For example, to find the number of moles in 2.00 g of NaCl, one would do the following:

In the above example, when written out in fraction form, the units of grams form a multiplicative identity, which is equivalent to one (g/g=1), with the resulting amount of moles (the unit that was needed), is shown in the following equation,

Determining Amount of Product
Stoichiometry can also be used to find the quantity of a product yielded by a reaction. If a piece of solid copper (Cu) was added to an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3), the silver (Ag) would be replaced in a single displacement reaction forming aqueous copper(II) nitrate (Cu(NO3)2) and solid silver. How much silver is produced if 16.00 grams of Cu is added to the solution of excess silver nitrate? The following steps would be used:

Step 1 - Write and Balance the Equation
Step 2 - Mass to Mole: Covert g Cu to moles Cu
Step 3 - Mole Ratio: Covert moles of Cu to moles of Ag produced Step 4 - Mole to Mass: Covert moles Ag to grams of Ag produced The complete balanced equation would be:
Cu + 2AgNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag
For the mass to mole step, the amount of copper (16.00 g) would be converted to moles of copper by dividing the mass of copper by its molecular mass: 63.55 g/mol.

Now that the amount of Cu in moles (0.2518) is found, we can set up the mole ratio. This is found by looking at the coefficients in the balanced equation: Cu and Ag are in a 1:2 ratio.

Now that the moles of Ag produced is known to be 0.5036 mol, we convert this amount to grams of Ag produced to come to the final answer:

This set of calculations can be further condensed into a single step:

Further examples

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