Effects of Employees’ Motivation on Organizational Performance
Many theories came along to show the importance of motivation. Motivators are the things that drive the employees to achieve; de-motivators are the opposite and would lead to deterioration on the job-level. Performance is directly affected by motivation, thus, a performance appraisal should be done where the manager measures the performance of an employee and acts accordingly. Motivation is the key to success in any given task or job. If not met, failure will most probably be the result. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the demotivators, the motivators of employees at work and the effect of these factors on employees’ performance thus organizational performance and the positive correlation between both latter concepts.
Abraham Maslow once said, "If I were dropped out of a plane into the ocean and told the nearest land was a thousand miles away, I'd still swim. And I'd despise the one who gave up.” The drive for him to reach the land is a combination of ability, willingness, and motivation. Likewise in any organization, there is always a drive for employees to achieve. The heart of this drive that leads to positive organizational performance and thus success is motivation; it is this desire to achieve. Motivating employees is when the employer gets them to "want" to do what he/she knows should be done. It is also the third key performance indicator of Human Resources. The main assets of an organization are the employees; if not satisfied and motivated then progress and success are close to impossible. Thus, it is a conductive synergy; if dissatisfaction occurs employees would dock, procrastinate, sabotage the company, increase absenteeism, or even petition. Motivation could be of two kinds: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation is based on the desire for external rewards, such as gaining approval of others, earning money, winning prizes... etc. Usually extrinsic motivation tends to be more commonly needed among people who have low or poor self-confidence or those who lack internal goals. The internal goals or the inner desire to do something or gain knowledge in something is what intrinsic motivation is based on. People who are led by intrinsic motivation are those who know what their goals are and are aligned with what they value most.
Due to the highly competitive era that we live in, managers need to consider behavioral management theories to increase employees’ retention and increase organizational effectiveness. After the classical school of management came the behavioral school to speak out on the name of employees' satisfaction and stated that they are driven by motivation and one could not possibly give them the job and ask them to yield good performance. According to Hawthorne's theory, a study was conducted on employees' performance in dim and bright light. Results were the same because in both cases they were given recognition and attention. According to McGregor, a manager should follow his "Theory Y" which states that people are good by nature and that they are ambitious and self-motivated. A theory Y manager believes that people will do well at work if they were given the right conditions. They are the managers that usually create the climate of trust that will lead to the development of the human resource aspect in an organization. Following that came Maslow's hierarchy of needs that divided the human needs into five categories: physiological, safety, social, self-esteem, and self-actualization. The first three are the lower level needs and the latter two are the higher level needs. Physiological needs are first and the most important; they are the basic requirements for the survival and function of humans and are met by having a hygienic environment at work. Safety needs are those concerning the security of the employment, resources, body, family... etc. These...
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