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Mongol Rule

By aviyashar Nov 09, 2010 557 Words
The Mongols ruled China and Russia, yet the effect of their rule in China and Russia, while in some ways similar, was quite different, politically and economically. Genghis Khan, born in the 1770s, was elected khagan (a title of imperial rank) of all Mongol tribes in 1206. Kubilai Khan, Genghis Khan’s grandson, was the commander of the Mongol forces responsible for the conquest of China; he became khagan in 1260. Kubilai Khan founded the Yuan Dynasty. Batu, the ruler of the Golden Horde of the dynasty, another grandson of Genghis Khan, was responsible for the invasion of Russia beginning in 1236. The Mongol rule over China was overbearing, while the Mongol rule over Russia was more disengaged.

The Mongols, under the rule of Kubilai Khan, captured China and established the Yuan Dynasty in 1234. The Mongols controlled the Chinese area south of Mongolia. They established direct control over Mongolia, and ruled with a bureaucracy. There was no scholar gentry, no civil service exam, and Confucianism was not used. The Chinese were also not allowed in the government. They also had their hands on the social and cultural policies of China. Economically, the Mongols helped China much more than they did politically. Although china paid a heavy tribute tax to Mongolia, Mongolia renewed trade for China, providing them with long distance trade routes and connections with other civilizations. Their exports included porcelain, silk, teas, textiles, medicine, and luxury items of all sorts. The Mongols rebuilt the Silk Road, a main trade route which the Mongols partially protected. Of course though, trading brought diseases, such as the black plague, which affected population severely. The Mongols stimulated the building of Chinese infrastructure and built new cities such as Xanadu. In essence, although Mongolia had its hand deep into China, they caused China’s prosperity.

Russia government was fragmented; it was ruled by princes of their own society. Russia was further ruled indirectly by Mongolia, by Batu, the ruler of the Golden Horde. Russia paid a heavy tribute tax to Mongolia. Russia freely went about with its social and cultural practices, such as Roman Orthodox Catholicism. Mongolia brought Russia long distance which connected the Eastern hemisphere to the Western hemisphere, and other new trading connections. Trade also brought disease which reduced the population severely. They traded fur and many other luxurious items. Trade included ideas and improvements to society. Even with the heavy tribute tax Russia paid to Mongolia, Russia was extremely prosperous. Mongolia controlled Russia very lightly, as they were far away, yet Mongolia still improved their trade and economic prosperity.

The effect of Mongol rule in China and Russia was similar, but different in many ways. In both China and Russia Mongolia helped the economy, introducing new trading connections, and long distance trade routes. The effect of Mongol rule was different in the two, especially politically. The Chinese were not allowed in China’s government, while Russia was ruled by Russian princes. Mongolia had complete control of China. China was directly south of Mongolia, while Russia was much farther away. This allowed the Mongols to improve China’s infrastructure much more than in Russia. Mongolia also controlled China’s social and cultural policies, while Russia was free to practice its social cultural aspects. Russia, by far, benefited from the effect of Mongol’s rule more than China.

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