The importance of change and corporate culture for contemporary organisations. A critical analysis of Schein’s cultural change model in the National Theatre.
Corporate culture has become an important element in understanding the constant change in contemporary organisations. It provides a valuable link between different aspects of the organisation such as structure, strategy or leadership. Following the managerialist perspective, leadership is a key aspect to create an organisational culture and to minimize uncertainty and potential resistance in the change process. However, internal and external constraints often limit the extent to which organisational culture can be influenced. These circumstances have to be evaluated carefully to critically reflect upon potential barriers to change.
Consequently, a large variety of frameworks have emerged, which aim to determine, analyse and influence the elements of corporate culture. Due to this complex and extensive nature of corporate culture, this essay will draw its focus on Edgar Scheins model of organisational culture. Scheins framework provides a dynamic analysis of organisational culture and change and will be used as a theoretical basis to examine the successful cultural change programme in the National Theatre in London. In more detail, this essay will emphasise the importance of leadership in an organisational change process, which will be supported by the theoretical underpinnings of Scheins model and the case study of the National Theatre. Yet, the agency of individuals to act upon the organisational environment is often bound by wider constraints. Therefore particular limitations of Scheins model and the cultural change in the National Theatre will critically be assessed to highlight the complex and constantly changing nature of organisational
References: Alvesson, M. (1993). Cultural Perspectives on Organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Alvesson, M. (2002). Understanding Organizational Culture. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Barlett, A., Ghoshal, S. (2002). Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution. 2nd ed. Boston: Harvard Business Press. Bolman, L., Deal, T. (2008). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Brown, A. (1995). Organisational Culture and Leadership. London: Pitman. Du Toit, W., Roodt, G Gill, R. (2002). Change management--or change leadership?. Journal of Change Management. 3 (4), 307-318. Gilmore, S., Williams, S. (2009). Human Resource Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Delgado, M., Heritage, P. (1996). In Contact With the Gods?: Directors Talk Theatre. Manchester: University Press. Donaghy, W. (2008). Union deal opens National Theatre for Sundays. Available: http://www.thestage.co.uk/news/2008/03/union-deal-opens-national-theatre-forsundays/ Handy, C. (1993). Understanding Organizations. London: Penguin Hatch, M Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture 's consequences: International differences in work related values. 5th ed. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. Hytner, N. (2008). National Theatre to open for Sunday matinees. Available:http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1575840/National-Theatre-to-openfor-Sunday-matinees.html . Last accessed 9th May 2014. Hytner, N. (2014). Hytner: "Appetite for Theatre is growing". Available: http://www.officiallondontheatre.co.uk/news/latestnews/ article/item224378/hytner-appetite-for-theatre-growing/ Jones, M. (2007). Hofstede – Culturally questionable?, Oxford Business & Economics Conference. Oxford, UK, 24-26 June, 2007. Meek, V. (1988). Organizational Culture: Origins and Weaknesses. Organization Studies. 9 (4), 453-473. National Theatre. (2003/2004). Annual Report and Financial Statements. London: National Theatre Meyerson, D. (2001). Radical Change, the Quiet Way. Harvard Business Review. 79 (9), 92-100. Ostroff, C., Kinicki, A., Muhammad, R. (2003). Organizational Culture and Climate. In: Weiner, I Handbook of Psychology Vol. 12. 2nd ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Parker, M. (2000). Organizational Culture and Identity: Unity and Division at Work. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Reynolds, N. (2008). National Theatre to open for Sunday matinees. Available: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1575840/National-Theatre-to-openfor- Sunday-matinees.html. Last accessed 10th May 2014. Schein, E. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Smircich, L. (1983). Concepts of Culture and Organizational Analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly. 28 (3), 339-358. Smith, A. (2008). Union deal opens National Theatre for Sundays. Available: http://www.thestage.co.uk/news/2008/03/union-deal-opens-national-theatre forsundays/.Last accessed 10th May 2014. Willmott, H. (1993). Strength Is Ignorance; Slavery Is Freedom: Managing Culture in Modern Organizations. Journal of Management Studies. 30 (4), 515-552.