Mill, Rousse, Hobbes, Locke

Topics: Morality, Ethics, Good and evil Pages: 6 (2127 words) Published: April 11, 2005
What is common in Locke, Hobbes and Rousseau is state of nature. In the state of nature all people are equal – although they have different tallents they are equal, because having different tallents doesn't prevent equality - and have same rights but in time they try to command each other and make domination upon them. Hobbes associate this desire with the effort to dispel the insecurity which is caused by equality between people. According to his opinion, if two people desire the same thing that they can not possess at the same time, they turn on each other. – we can affirm that this hostility is generated by equality-. Mainly for the purpose of protecting their entity, sometimes only by enjoying they try to destroy or dominate each other. For protecting himself a person thinks its required to increase the dominance upon others. As a result of this, war between people emerges. He says that " As long as there is not state, there is always war among people" The duty of the state is individual's security. He assigns a state that would limit freedom to establish security and limit people to prevent them to hurt other people. "And therefore so long as a man is in the condition of mere nature, which is a condition of war, private appetite is the measure of good and evil: and consequently all men agree on this, that peace is good, and therefore also the way or means of peace, which (as I have shown before) are justice, gratitude, modesty, equity, mercy, and the rest of the laws of nature, are good; that is to say, moral virtues; and their contrary vices, evil." As a foundation of the law of nature he asserts that, "Don't act like you dont want what is done to you." Rousseau relates the desire of domination, with "faculty of self-improvements". We always want to be superior than others and this causes inequality between people. So, state is required for satisfaction of people's basic needs and providing oportunities. When it comes to Locke, the reason is the right, which everyone has, to punish someone who violated the right of his own. That right causes people to hurt each other and to conflict. Thus, the state of war arises. For the sake of avoiding from the war, people construct the state. Duty of the state is -similar to Hobbes's ideas- protecting individual's life and properties.

Of Spontaneous Moral Laws
The root of the moral laws is inherent to people. People sailing from themselves, deciding what is right or wrong, good or bad, justice or unjustice, constitute moral laws. His only standard is his experiences or his intiutions. If we assign the criterion of morality on the consequences of actions ; namely, actions that results with positive effects are moral, with negative effects are immoral; people by deducing from their own experiences and observations determine what is moral or not. If we don't assign the standard of morality on results, consequences, effects but on the action itself –which is similar to Platon- to reach the moral laws intuition is required as a means –which is not similar to him-. With this means everyone can reach the knowledge of what is right, true, good, justice which is inherent in them but beyond experience and observation. Even if morality have it's source in individual, it is required a superior power to protect its laws. Sanctions is needed to proceed its guideline. It would be better if this force be society and originates it's motives from every individual's life. But society would be effective to a certain degree, after that, state would be required with its stronger sanctions. Like its rise in political life to coordinate the realationships between people it is required in morality to preserve the basic principles.

Why do I think the pleasure of whole instead of my own happiness? To answer this question it would be better primarily to look upon at the human nature. If we assume that people are egoistic and they only pay attention to their own utility, then we can...
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