Egypt and Mesopotamia: Compare and Contrast During the New Stone Age, also known as the Agricultural Revolution, two civilizations ascended. Although many similarities can be shown between the two, they each are very different from each other culturally, geographically, socially, politically, and religiously. Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt developed during the same time period, 5000-6000 B.C., geographically; they both had a source main of freshwater; the Nile River for Egypt, and the Tigris and Euphrates River for Mesopotamia. Both civilizations also have access to major trading seas, coming from their main Rivers. Egypt and Mesopotamia’s river’s provided most of the needed water for their crops. Egypt developed north and south, surrounding the banks of the Nile River. Where Mesopotamia developed was known as the “Fertile Crescent”, between the Tigris and Euphrates. The main body of water near Egypt was the Mediterranean and for Mesopotamia it was the Persian Gulf. Since Egypt was bordered on one side by a huge sea, and on the other side an impassable desert, it made it very challenging to attack or conquer Egypt. Since Mesopotamia was wide open on most sides, it was very effortless to invade.
Socially, their rankings were quite similar; Priests/ Pharaohs were ranked the highest, lower-class was second, and then slaves, but Egyptians were notorious to treat the slaves far beyond brutal. Mesopotamians typically used war prisoners or debtors as slaves. The Egyptian society tended to think of themselves as superior to other people, so Egyptians frequently eyed foreigners with unwelcomed glares. Another comprises the political development and characteristics. Both ancient Mesopotamia’s and Egypt’s government were ruled by some sort of king. For Egypt, the highest place of the government was the pharaoh, who was not only considered a king, but a god. On the other hand, Mesopotamia was first governed by gods or priests, but