In every continent, practitioners proclaim the belief that people are the bedrock of success in schools and colleges.....leading to a greater emphasis on the effective management of people. (Foskett & Lumby 2003: 61)
Managing teachers to facilitate effective learning can be both rewarding and challenging. A teacher mentoring program, when implemented successfully, is one particular management tool that can bring both personal and organizational rewards. However, implementing such a program effectively is challenging. One notable challenge appears to be the correlation between the inherent cultural background (see footnote) of a mentor/mentee (see footnote) and the necessary characteristics and qualities required by a mentor/mentee, as recognized and generally accepted by informed research, to make such a program successful. Although many researchers discuss the challenges of cross-cultural mentoring (see Shore et al, 2008. St Claire-Oswald, 2007), my aim is to draw attention to the challenges that culture in general may pose when implementing a teacher mentoring program.
|The terms ‘societal culture’ or ‘national culture’ will be expressed solely as ‘culture’ unless indicated otherwise. |
|The terms ‘mentee’ and ‘protégé’ are interchangeable throughout this paper. |
These cultural challenges, in relation to the qualities needed for mentors/mentees, will be analyzed in light of both Hoefstede’s and Dimmock & Walker’s work on cultural dimensions. While my aim is not to contrast and compare certain cultures and whether one is deemed more or less likely to succeed in a mentoring program than the other, I do wish to briefly analyze the challenges educational managers in Hong Kong may encounter in their attempts to develop such a program, as well as their
Bibliography: Anderson, E.M., and Lucasse Shannon, A. (1995). Towards a conceptualization of mentoring in Kerry, T and Shelton Mayes, A. Issues in Mentoring, London: Rutledge Asma Abdullah Chui, A. C. W., Lloyd, A. E. & Kwok, C. C. Y. (2002). The Determination of Capital Structure: Is National Culture a Missing Piece To The Puzzle? Journal of International Business Studies, 33 (1), 99-127. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997), Living Well, The Psychology of Everyday Life, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Dimmock, C Dimmock C and Walker A (1998) ‘Towards comparative Educational Administration : the case for a cross-cultural , school based approach,’ journal of Educational Administration , 36 (4) ;379-401 Earley P Foskett, N & Lumby, J. (2003) Leading and Managing Education: International Dimensions. London, Paul Chapman • He, Y Francesco, A.M. & Gold, B.A. 1998. International organizational behavior: Text, readings, cases, and skills • Furlong, J. & Maynard, T. (1995) Mentoring Student Teachers: The growth of professional knowledge. London: Routledge. Goto, S. (1999). Asian Americans and developmental relationships. In A.J. Murrell, F.J. Crosby, & R.J. Gray, M. A., & Smith, L. N. (2000). The qualities of an effective mentor from the student perspective: Findings from a longitudinal qualitative study. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 32(6), 1542-1549. GROVER, K.L. (1994). ‘A study of first year elementary principals and their mentors in the New York city public schools.’ Paper presented Hagerty, B. (1986). A second look at mentors. Do you really need one to succeed? Nursing Outlook, 34(1), 16-24. Hofstede, G. H. (1980), Culture’s Consequences – International Differences in Work-Related Values, Beverly Hills: Sage Publications Hofstede, G Hirst, G., Budhwar, P., Cooper, B. K., West, M., Long, C., Chongyuan, X. & Shipton, H. (2008). Cross-Cultural Variations in Climate for Autonomy, Stress and Organizational Productivity Relationships: A Comparison of Chinese and UK Manufacturing Organizations, Journal of International Business Studies, 39 (8), 1343-1358. Holt-Reynolds, D. (1992) Personal history-based beliefs as relevant prior knowledge in course work. American Educational Research Journal, 22, 3, pp. 325-349. HOPKINS-THOMPSON, P.A. (2000). ‘Colleagues helping colleagues: mentoring and coaching’, NASSP Bulletin, 84, 617, 29-36. Hunt, D. M., & Michael, C. (1983). Mentorship: A career training and development tool. Academy Of Management Review, 8(3), 475-485. • Jacques, K. (1992) Mentoring in initial teacher education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 22, 3, pp. 337-350. Johnson, W.B., & Nelson, N. (1999). Mentor-protégé relationships in graduate training: Some ethical concerns Kardos, S.M., Johnson, S.M., Peske, H.G., Kauffman, D., & Liu, E. (2001). Counting on colleagues: New teachers encounter the professional cultures of their schools ^ Kroeber, Alfred L. (1939) Cultural and Natural Areas of Native North America University of California Press, Berkeley, CA Lazarus, E Lazarus, E. & Tay, S. (2003) Transfer and transformation: developing mentoring in Malaysia. In Learning and Teaching where Worldviews Meet. Leung, K., Bhagat, R. S., Buchan, N. R., Erez, M. & Gibson, C. B. (2005). Culture and International Business: Recent Advances and Their Implications for Future Research, Journal of International Business Studies, 36 (4), Li, J., Lam, K. & Qian, G. (2001). Does Culture Affect Behavior and Performance of Firms? The case of joint ventures in China, Journal of International Business Studies, 32 (1), 115-131. Liang, B., Tracey, A., Kauh, T., Taylor, C., & Williams, L.M. (2006). Mentoring Asian and Euro- American college women Makhija, M. V. & Stewart, A. C. (2002). The Effect of National Context on Perceptions of Risk: A Comparison of Planned versus Free-Market Managers, Journal of International Business Studies, 33 (4), 737-756. Money, R. B. (1998). International Multilateral Negotiations and Social Networks, Journal of International Business Studies, 29 (4), 695-710. Roberts, A. (2000). Mentoring Revisited: a phenomenological reading of the literature Shore, Wendelyn J. , Toyokawa, Teru and Anderson, Dana D.(2008) 'Context-specific effects on reciprocity in mentoring relationships: ethical implications ', Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16: 1, 17 —29 Sirmon, D. G. & Lane, P. J. (2004). A Model of Cultural Differences and International Alliance Performance, Journal of International Business Studies, 35 (4), 306-3(19. Concepts of Culture and Organizational AnalysisLinda Smircich (1980)