FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF BACTERIA
Bacteria are some of the most diverse organisms in nature. These single-celled organisms cannot be seen with the naked eye and are found in many different habitats, like soil, air, water, hot springs and acidic environments. Bacteria are identified using a method called Gram staining, whereby a stain is used to differentiate different types of organisms. Bacteria with and without a cell wall are classified as Gram-positive or Gram-negative, respectively. Bacterial types vary by shape and size. Coccus
Coccus refers to spherical shaped bacteria that may live as individual cells, or pair up to form chains or bunches. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are the most common bacteria in this group and usually are Gram-positive. These bacteria perform useful functions in the body and environment but they can be harmful. Staphylococcus aureus can cause impetigo (skin infection), scalded skin syndrome and food poisoning, while Streptococcus pyogenes may cause tonsillitis and strep throat. Bacillus
Bacillus refers to rod shaped bacteria that are usually Gram-positive or negative. E. coli and Salmonella are the most commonly encountered species responsible for food poisoning and typhoid fever, respectively. According to the University at Albany, bacillus also includes two of the most dangerous bacteria known, that is Bacillus anthracis, which causes the lung disease anthrax, and Clostridium, which causes botulism, gangrene and tetanus. Rickettsia
Rickettsia is a very unique type of bacteria because it behaves like a virus and cannot survive outside living cells. The organism is Gram-negative, coccus or sphere-shaped, and is spread through the bite of infected fleas, ticks and lice, which are known as vectors, or carriers. Rickettsia is responsible for typhus, Rocky Mountain Spotted fever and Rickettsialpox, a body rash. Mycoplasma
Mycoplasma does not have a cell wall and may be rod or sphere-shaped. This gives the organism a unique advantage because it is unaffected by antibiotics, which work by damaging the cell wall. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is responsible for respiratory disease, while Mycoplasma genitalium causes pelvic disease.
Spirillum refers to corkscrew or spiral-shaped bacteria that are Gram-negative. Treponema commonly is responsible for the sexually-transmitted disease syphilis. Borrelia has been known to cause Lyme disease, which is transmitted by a tick bite. Although there are five different types of bacteria, there is a lot of variation among each species. The organisms have evolved to such an extent that they are able to thrive in the harshest of environments with amazing adaptation abilities.
N. R. Narayana Murthy
Executive Chairman of the Board
Narayana Murthy is the Executive Chairman of Infosys Limited, a global software consulting company headquartered in Bangalore, India. He founded Infosys in 1981, served as the CEO during 1981-2002, as the Chairman and Chief Mentor during 1981-2011, and as the Chairman Emeritus during August 2011-May 2013. Under his leadership, Infosys was listed on NASDAQ in 1999. Mr. Murthy articulated, designed and implemented the Global Delivery Model which has become the foundation for the huge success in IT services outsourcing from India. He has led key corporate governance initiatives in India. He is an IT advisor to several Asian countries. He is a Trustee of the Infosys Science Foundation, a not-for-profit trust, set up by Infosys and some members of its Board, to spread the culture of science mainly through the Infosys Prize, an annual award across six scientific categories. He serves on the boards of Ford Foundation, Rhodes Trust, the Indian School of Business and the UN Foundation. He served as a member of the HSBC board between 2008 and 2012, Unilever board between 2007 and 2010, the Chairman of the International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore between 2002 and 2012 and the Chairman of the Indian...
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