Management Roles and Skills (Mintzberg's Managerial Roles)

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Motivation
Motivation can be defined as the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
( Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler &Weick ).
Effort: The first aspect of motivation refers to the amount of effort being applied to the job. This effort must be defined in relation to its appropriateness to the objectives being pursued. One may, for example, apply tremendous effort to inappropriate tasks that do not contribute to the achievement of the stated goals.
Persistence: The second characteristic relates to the willingness of the individual to stay with a task until it is complete. For example, an important task that gets Accomplished with effort but allows the person to rest on their laurels for an extended period does not display persistence.
What is Leadership?
Leadership is a process by which an executive can direct, guide and influence the behavior and work of others towards accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation. Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.
Leadership is the potential to influence behaviour of others. It is also defined as the capacity to influence a group towards the realization of a goal. Leaders are required to develop future visions, and to motivate the organizational members to want to achieve the visions.
According to Keith Davis, “Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards goals.”
Characteristics of Leadership 1. It is a inter-personal process in which a manager is into influencing and guiding workers towards attainment of goals. 2. It denotes a few qualities to be present in a person which includes intelligence, maturity and personality. 3. It is a group process. It involves two or more people interacting with each other. 4. A leader is involved in shaping and moulding the behaviour of the group towards

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