4.1 Social Institutions
4.2 Varna and Caste
In the Maratha society the theocratic principles predominated the idea of God was so all prevailing that everything else subordinated to it. The Marathas were the religious minded people and perhaps they were ready to do everything for their dharma what they did not do for their own selves. The structure of the Maratha social organisation was based on various systems whose origin again was believed to be divine, It was therefore, not changed since a long time and handed down undisturbed from father to son for generations, together. When these systems became hereditary, a new principle of stagnation was introduced in the society. 4.1 Social Institutions:
The social philosophy is based on the level of culture and the general outlook of that society. In the same way the social institutions like family, marriage, Hindu law and religion also influenced and affected the position of women in that society. During the period of Marathas the system of joint family was in existence which had no liberal outlook towards women of that time. In this joint family system marriages were contractual and arranged at an early age, the chances of incompatibility of marriage partners were very high. This was divided into several divisions for the convenience of study as under: 1) Family 2) Marriage.
4.2 Varna and Caste:
The pattern of social classes in Hinduism is called the "caste system." Basic caste is called varna, or "color." Subcaste, or jati, "birth, life, rank," is a traditional subdivision of varna. Caste is a largely static organisation, it is exclusively social class and its membership is determined by the birth. Caste involved with particular customary restrictions and based on certain privileges. The word caste is derived from the Portuguses word casta, meaning breed, race, or Kind. It was used first to denote the Hindu social classification on the Indian subcontinent. Although, this is the basic connotation of the word caste, it is used to describe in whole or in part social systems that emerged at various times in other parts of the world. 4.2.1 Varna:
The varna system is a social order of the people based on their type of work and livelihood activity. The four basic Varnas or castes as they are also called are the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishas and Shudras, among which the Brahmins hold the highest position, respect and authority whereas the Shudras are placed at the lowest rung and are looked down upon. This social grouping as per their superiority - inferiority are: Brahmins-the priests also known as the twice-born; the Kshatryas - warriors by profession; Vaishyas-the traders and lastly Shudras the laborers. These Varnas not only dictates one's occupation, but goes beyond to include other means such as dietary habits and interaction with members of other varnas as well. Members belonging to a high varna enjoy wealth and opportunities whereas those to a lower rank perform menial tasks. The works of Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras are different, in harmony with the three powers of their born nature. The works of a Brahmin are peace; self-harmony, austerity, and purity; loving-forgiveness and righteousness; vision and wisdom and faith. Kshatriyas have: a heroic mind, inner fire, constancy, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity and noble leadership whereas Trade, agriculture and the rearing of cattle is the work of a Vaishya. And the work of the Shudra is service.
Generally, caste was organised with a chief and council acting in concerted authority. It was often united for the celebrations of certain religious festivals and cultural functions. The member of a caste further bounded by occupation and common customs relating particularly to marriage, food and the question of pollution. Thus, food and drinks ware limited within a caste, means only members of the same caste used to eat together. Further, the caste means the collection of families or groups who bore a common home and claimed a common descent from a mythical ancestor, human or divine.
The caste system in India is a unique social organisation in the history of world. Although, this organisation came into existence from the time immemorial, its origin is believed to be divine. According to the traditional theory of origin of caste system caste is as old as time and takes its earliest from in the varna organisation of the Vedic Age. It was a simple four-varna system during the Vedic period but it grew into a complex and elaborates system in the course of time. It is handed down undisturbed from father to his son. Therefore, it is neither changed nor eradicated. It became hereditary, stagnated stationary and lost its original elasticity with the passage of time. A) Meaning:
The word "Caste" owes its origins to the Spanish word 'Casta' which means 'breed, race, strain or a complex of hereditary qualities.' The Portuguese applied this term to the classes of people in India, known by the name of 'jati.' The English word 'Caste' is an adjustment of the original term 'Casta.' B) Caste Structure:
The caste structure of the region, its relationship with land and its implications for local and State politics are important for the emergence and growth of co-operatives in a particular State. The Marathas enjoy a decisive dominance in Maharashtra as a whole. All other caste groups are too small compared to them. The largest second group in numbers is that of the ex-untouchable Mahars. Although politically conscious, being poor and landless, they do not pose any serious threat to the dominance of the Marathas. The Marathas enjoy a high (though not the highest) ritual status. They are land owners and cultivators. Traditionally headman ship is most villages belonged to the Marathas. The Marathas are well spread out in all the districts throughout the state with the result that they dominate at all levels (village, taluka, district and state) of the political system.The Marathas took a leading part in the expansion of co-operatives in the State. Unlike the dominant caste in the eastern states, the Marathas are rooted in rural society and are not urban oriented. They neither are not absentee landowners nor are they shy of engaging in manual work including ploughing the fields. Although most Marathas are landowners and cultivators, one comes across wide economic differentiation among them. It is significant to note that the Malis were not enthusiastic about the expansion of co-ops. The Malis are experts in irrigated farming, including sugarcane growing. They are also landowners and cultivators. They have shown innovation and enterprise in migrating to distant places in search of irrigated land for cultivation of sugarcane and other cash crops. Muslims were no less divided by considerations of caste, race, tribe and status. The Irani, Turani, Afghan and Hindustani Muslim nobles were conscious of their own race. Moreover, the sharif Muslims consisting of nobles, scholars and priests, looked down upon the ajlaf Muslims or the lower caste Muslims. 4.3 Communities:
The social life under the Marathas was based on the caste system whose origin was believed to be divine. It, therefore was not changed.. The caste system was handed down undisturbed from father to son for generations together. It became hereditary and a new principle of stagnation was introduced in the social life of the Marathas. That social structure became so stationary that it seemed beyond any change in near future. The upper caste looked after the need of education but there was no competition from any other castes, therefore, there was no advancement in knowledge. The upper caste transmitted whatever they received from their preceptor. 4.3.1Bhakti Movement:
Bhakti is the Hindu concept of supreme love and devotion to the God. It is the most popular way of achieving salvation in the Life of Hindu people. As a matter of fact, devotion to God is meaningful only if it is blended with love towards all human beings and creatures in the world, without any bias or reservations. Such devotion is bound to be reflected in the devotee's personality radiating powerful and luminous divine energy. This Bhakti or devotion leads to ecstasy and expels all forms of hate, envy, lust, greed and attracts only truth, goodness and righteousness. It is often observed that such devotion or Bhakti culminates the devotees in dancing exuberantly with the name of God on their lips, which always attracted and inspired the observers towards them. Bhakti movement was a movement of realization of God with in oneself and the union of the individual with God through the loving devotion of the devotee towards God. This Bhakti movement began in India before the rise of Sufism in Islam and its percolation in India. The origin of Bhakti was traced in the Vedas and the Upanishads. It was an established element in the post-vedic age and the Bhagwat movement. During this period Bhakti was considered with Jnana and Karma as paths to Salvation. There are two aspects of Bhakti as one is the path of devotion based on service to God. The devotee throwing himself completely at the mercy of God, which is known as the path of surrendering to God. The other one is the bond based on pure love and equality rather than service to God. This is exemplified in the legends of Vishnu and Bhagwata Puranas.
A) Important Saints of the Bhakti Movement:
There were many saints from various part of the country who involved themselves in this movement and contributed a lot towards the reforms of Hinduism to meet the Islamic ideological challenges. 1) Saint Dyaneshwar:
He was the most revered and the prime saint of 12th century Maharashtra. He came to prominence due to his commentary on Gita, the holy book of the Hinduism. Saint Dyaneshwar made equal stress on Dyana, Karma and bhakti of devotee towards his God as ways for attainment of God. The most important contribution of Dyaneshwar inter alia to the bhakti movement was that he wrote the Dyaneshwari in the language of common people, that is Marathi. Had he written in Sanskrit, the message, which he wanted to give, would have not reached to each and every man of the state. 2) Namdeva:
Saint Dyaneshwara had several successors but Namdeva was eminent among them. Namdeva popularised the bhakti movement throughout Maharashtra as well as India Dr. Tarachand says that the whole credit of changing mind of priest- ridden and ceremonial creed of people towards the love of God- goes to Namdeva. Namdeva who was born in 1270 A.D in Maharashtra preached intense love and devotion to God. He opposed to idol worship in religion and caste system in society. Namdeva asserted that salvation could be achived through bhaktior devotion to God and not through any religious ritual. He often declared that a true devotee neither needed any pilgrimages nor fast or austerities, but he needed to concentrate his attention on the name of Hari i.e. God. Namdeva travelled a lot in the northern parts of India and engaged himself in discussions with many saints of that period. Naturally, his followers belonged to all sections of society. 3) Ramananda:
He contributed a lot to make the bhakti movement popular in various parts of the country. Ramananda was born at Prayag, Allahabad and followed the philosophy of his guru Ramanuja. He popularised the worship of Rama as one of the incarnations of Vishnu. Means he believed in the philosophy of Vaishnavism. Although Ramananda did not isolate himself from the traditional value in the society, he disregarded caste barriers and preached equality in society. He encouraged common kitchen for people belonged to different castes and eating together without observing any distance. Ramananda had chosen his followers from various sections of the society as Ravidas was a cobbler, Kabir was a weaver, Sena was a barber and Sadhana was a butcher. Naturally, these saints sent the message of equality and Hindu-Muslim unity to each and every part of the country. 4) Kabir:
He was being one of the closest disciples of Ramananda, could learn vedanta philosophy very well from him and involved himself in bhakti movement more than any other saints. He spread the message of bhakti to his optimum possible among the people and became the propagator of Hindu- Muslim unity. He strongly criticized on idol worship and caste system in the society. Although, he was a great saint of bhakti movement there is no certainty about his early life and his birth. 5) Kabir:
He was being one of the closest disciples of Ramananda, could learn vedanta philosophy very well from him and involved himself in bhakti movement more than any other saints. He spread the message of bhakti to his optimum possible among the people and became the propagator of Hindu- Muslim unity. He strongly criticized on idol worship and caste system in the society. Although, he was a great saint of bhakti movement there is no certainty about his early life and his birth. He emphasized on the one God and attaining salvation by way of love and devotion without distinction of caste, creed or any sect. He advocated that one should have a purity of character as pre condition for approaching God and attaining salvation. He strongly denounced the caste system and believed in human equality, brotherhood, peace, good will and unity between Hindus and Muslim. 6) Madhava Charya:
He was one of the learned saints of the bhakti movement from southern part of India and travelled widely to every corner of the country for propagation of his philosophy. Madhava Charya profounded the philosophy of two beings as independent and depended beings i.e. dualism. He says that God is the only omniscient and therefore, is independent being. The all others i.e. matter and soul is dependent beings. He further says that the individual soul is absolutely dependent on Brahma and can be divided into three categories as viable to achieve final bliss, rotating the cycle of birth and death and sinner, viable for eternal hell. He emphasized on the importance of Guru in the attainment of salvation through love and bhakti towards God. Madhava Charya had several books to his credit on Brahma Sutra, Upanishidas, Bhagwat Gita and Mahabharata. Thus, Madhava Charya was the most influential saint of the bhakti movement. B) Effect of Bhakti Movement:
As there were several bhakti saints from various parts of India. The scope of this movement was the whole of country. It spread each and every province of our country. This movement tried to achieve regeneration in Hinduism in order to make it enough strong to withstand the attack of Islamism and consequently conversion of Hindus to Islamism. The bhakti movement also aimed at the cordiality and brotherhood between the Hindu and the Muslim communities. 1) Development of Local and Regional languages:
The saints and philosophers involved in this movement were from various parts of the country and belong to various local or regional language background. They used the local or mass language to propagate the message of the movement among the people. Therefore, the bhakti movement created literature in the local language, which stimulated the development of local and regional languages. 2) Social Change:
Al most all bhakti saints professed the philosophy of social cordiality, friendliness, universal brotherhood and the unity of god. They also criticized and protested against the out dated and useless traditions, customs and systems like caste and untouchability. Naturally, this led to reduce the austerity of these social evils and weakened them considerably. Thus, the bhakti movement paved the way of change in society.
3) Bhakti Movement Stimulated change in religious thinking:
When almost all saints began to attack on the orthodoxy of the religious, then the period of soul searching exercise began in the religions minded people. These saints also tried to align them with some other philosophers and sects other than their own traditional faith. As the bhakti movement created stir in society and religion, it also enhanced the change in the approach of rulers then in India. Due to bhakti movement only, the rulers were forced to understand the religion of the masses for their smooth and uninterrupted administration in the country. 4.3.2Wari:
The wari tradition of Maharashtra involves an ocean of devotees undertaking an arduous journey on foot to Pandharpur where the palkhis’ of Sant Tukaram and Sant Dnyaneshwar meet on Ekadashi (Eleventh day of Hindu Lunar calendar), to worship Vithoba. It is believed that Maharashtra has witnessed this tradition for at least 800 years. Today, the palkhi of Sant Tukaram starts from Dehu, while Sant Dynaneshwar’s palkhi starts from Alandi and the two reach Pandharpur on ekadashi. The activities during the procession are aplenty. The Pandharpur Wari (tour of duty) is an annual pilgrimage undertaken by VITTHAL BHAKTs (devotees of Lord Vitthal or Vishnu) subscribing to the teachings and tenets of the BHAGWAT DHARMA in Maharashtra. As part of long standing tradition, the Vitthal Bhakts (devotees) undertake what is known as the WARI (pilgrimage). The WARI is a procession accompanying the PALKHI (palanquin) carrying the PADUKAS (foot wear / replica of sandals of saints). During this long pilgrimage people collectively sing, dance, play, recite the praises of Lord Vitthal and reflect on the works of his regional devotee saints. The nearly two week long journey culminates on the eleventh day of the month of “Aashaadh” (June-July). Annually hundreds of thousands of WARKARIS (those undertaking the WARI) travel on foot to have a glimpse of Lord Vitthal by reaching the town of Pandharpur on the banks of river Chandrabhaga adopting the teachings of the saints. The WARI lends a supremely distinct identity to Maharashtra’s cultural horizon. Through the collective congregation of the VITTHAL BHAKTS are carried forward the teachings of the BHAGWAT DHARMA. 4.3.3Sufism:
Sufism is a common term used for Islamic mysticism. The Sufis were very liberal in their religious outlook. They believed in the essential unity of all religions. They preached spirituality through music and doctrines that professed union with God. Sufism originated in Iran and found a congenial atmosphere in India under the Turkish rule. Their sense of piety, tolerance, sympathy, concept of equality and friendly attitude attracted many Hindus, mostly from lower classes, to Islam. Sufi saints such as Moinuddin Chisti, Nizamuddin Auliya, Fariduddin Ganj-e-Shakar were the pioneer sufïs who are still loved, respected and honoured in India. The sufis were also influenced by the Christian and Buddhist monks regarding the establishment of their khanqahs and dargahs. Khanqah the institutions (abode of Sufis) set up by the Sufis in northern India took Islam deeper into the countryside. Mazars (tombs) and Takias (resting places of Muslim saints) also became the centres for the propagation of Islamic ideas. These were patronized both by the aristocracy and the common people. The Sufis emphasized respect for all human beings. 4.4 Marriage:
This is the first institution created by the society which helped the society the most in the process of socialisation. It is fundamental part of the family rather marriage only is responsible for the formation of family. It is universally agreed that without marriage there is no family. The family during the period of Marathas formed of a consanguineous patriarchal group, recognizing patriarchal descent. It was a joint family in which all members like brothers, even stepbrothers, sons, sisters, others relatives like widowed aunts, their children and orphans lived together with father the eldest member at the head. In such family all decisions and circumstances went against the woman and she was proved insignificant. Marriages in joint family were contractual and arranged at an early age by the elders without any consideration of the marrying parties.
Consequently several unwanted and unwarranted events came up as , the members of the joint family being together for generations, the ties of filial love or attachment about each other developed very strong, husbands used to be under the influence of their mothers, sisters and other members of the family rather than their wives. Newly married or young daughters-in-law were left to the mercy of their in-laws or other senior ladies in the family. Naturally, without any alternatives, these young daughters-in-law became victims of the torture of their in-laws and committed suicides. Thus, the marriage, an important social institution under the Marathas led the woman towards her end and proved the level of position of women during that period. Polygamy was an old social evil. It was confined not only to the Hindus but to Muslims as well. However, it did not become a common vice among the general population. Dowry system was prevalent .Position of women in any society depends upon two major factors as social philosophy and social institutions that developed. 4.4.1Features of Marriage System:
The marriage system during the Marathas had some predominant and outstanding features which influenced and affected the position of women if they operated concomitantly, the effects were utterly disastrous. These features were as: 1) Dowry 2) Child Marriage 3) Polygamy 4) Restrictions on widow remarriage 5) Divorce. 1) Dowry:
Marriages under the Marathas were fixed by the families and elderly persons, the parties concerned were given no say about the choice of marriage parteners.The factors that mattered in the selection were the compatibility of horoscopes, family background, caste, suitability of gotras and dowry. There are several references regarding dowry transactions during the Peshwa period. When the marriage malady like dowry was practiced and the brides or their parents were forced to pay such amount in the marriage , it highlighted the position of woman, which was not equal but lower to man in that society. 2) Child Marriage :
This was another important feature of the marriage system under the Marathas.It is said that Hindu law makers and Dharma Shastras strongly recommended child marriages or pre-puberty marriages and advised that parents who failed to marry away their daughters in the pre-puberty age incurred a huge sin. Peshwas were the Chitpawan Brahmins, they considered themselves as the custodians of Hindu law and religion and paid strict attention towards the observance of the marriage laws. Peshwas even released prisoners on several occasions to enable them to marry their daughters in the pre-puberty age. Peshwa Bajirao II had issued orders to all Brahmins to get their daughters married before the age of nine. Generally, girls were married before the age of ten .In certain unavoidable circum stances, when marriage of a girl was delayed, eleven, was considered the maximum limit of the marriageable age. If somebody could not marry his daughter within the age of eleven, he was ex -communicated or outcaste by the people. Although, there was an upper limit of the marriageable age of girls but there was no mention about the minimum age of marriage of male. There are a numerable instances of girls married at the age of 2 and 1/2 or 3years of age. But it is observed that five was the generally approved and practicable age of girls for marriage. When the marriageable age of girls was below ten, life of such newly married girl was quite deplorable and full of miseries. 3) Polygamy:
This was one more characteristic of marriage life of people under the Marathas. Although, there was a ceiling on marriageable age of girls, there was no ceiling on the marriageable age of men. They were able to marry any number of times at any advanced age in life. It means men used to practice polygamy without any hesitation and nobody raised any objection on this system for a long. it is said that men could contract as many marriages as they desired. Thus, Polygamy was practiced at every level, which indicated the position of woman during the period of Marathas. 4) Prohibition of Widow Re –Marriage:
This was one more indicator of the position of woman during the Marathas period.. Society under the Marathas did not raise even, the slightest objection to the re-marriage of men, but the same society did not offer the same freedom to woman even in case of exigency. Some British reports say that re-marriage of widow was permitted among the economically weaker sections and humbler castes but it was totally prohibited among the upper castes. Widow re-marriage was allowed in the economically humbler class as well as whose husband was not heard for considerable period , but such woman was not permitted to re-marry before the prescribed period of waiting, which varied from five to twelve years. On the other hand, there was no such waiting period for males belonging to any caste or class. It is enough transparent to understand the position of woman of this period. 5) Divorce:
This was also one of the important issues helped determine the position of woman in the society. Although, divorce was sanctioned among lower castes, there were some castes who never liked to sanction divorce in their caste in order to compete with Brahmins and claim some sort of higher ritual status. Brahmins never sanctioned divorce because marriage, they considered was a very sacred tie and thought it was irrevocable in any case. But the marriage was revoked when it was proved that the marriage was concluded hastily and without proper rites and rituals. 6) Sati:
Among the most heinous systems Indians continued since the ages, Sati system was one of them .It was in full swing during the Maratha period when child widows were everywhere. The society under the Marathas was neither sympathetic towards the widows nor towards the child widow. On the contrary it subjected them to several restrictions and increased their miseries and unhappiness which led them to burn themselves with the dead bodies of their husbands on the funeral pyre of their husband means committing sati. This signifies the outlook of the society towards the woman and their position in the society. Sati was practiced among upper castes such as Brahmins, Marathas and warrior classes during this period. There are a number of references of not only wives but also concubines and female slaves burnt themselves with the dead bodies of their master. The main reason behind committing sati by widows was that the status or the abject conditions to which the widows were reduced after the death of their husbands. Widows were pushed to such status that they tortured and separated from the main stream of life. Naturally, they took the painful decision of committing sati. There are several evidences of the state of widows after the death of their husbands. After the death of a man his widow never allowed to marry again , she was deprived of all her valuables and beauty by shaving her hair off and made her to remain for the rest of her life without being of any considerations and worse than a slave. This unbearable life condition caused her to detest life and prefer to be burnt herself with the dead body of her husband. Thus, these evidences clearly indicated the position of woman during the Maratha period. 4.5 Family
The traditional Indian family is a large kinship group commonly described as joint family. A joint family is one in which two or more generation’s live under one roof or different roofs having a common hearth. All the members own the immovable property of the line in common. This family is generally patriarchal and patrilineal, that is, the father or the oldest male member is the head of the house and administrator of the property and the headship descends in the male line.
4.5.1Family System during Maratha Period:
It has been the most useful and fundamental social institution the society has evolved ever. It is the family who determines the structure of society it forms and moulds the character of its members. Family as a basic unit of the society performs four very indispensable functions as sexual, reproductive, economic and educational of these, the first and second satisfies basic biological and social needs of man and due to this reason family is considered as a fundamental social unit. These two basic functions are so interrelated each reinforce and enrich the satisfaction of other, therefore, they are generally considered together. The man and woman are equally sharing the responsibility while discharging the above four functions, even then the women for no reason was treated interior to man. Family during the period of Peshwa served as an excellent school for training the child in social etiquettes like social stratas, politeness, hierarchical calibration of action, inculcating virtues of self-discipline, self- sacrifice, obedience and service of elders and abidance by the precepts of religion, Although, these virtues were needed to anyone to possess them but they were much more and harsh in case of girl child. They inculcated in girl child utmost obedience to one's elders and superiors and respectful acceptance of their authority, which they regard as the highest virtues essential for potential survival. They imbibed that the girls should not disrespect the wishes or orders of their elders as well as not to remonstrate against them even if they scolded or punished. It is very clear from these evidences that all bondages and barriers were entailed on the girl child only. 4.5.2Status of Women:
After taking into account all factors like social philosophy, social institutions and the Hindu Law and religion prevailed during the Maratha period, it appears that these factors affected and influenced the position of women unevenly and unequally. It was the middle rung of the society affected and suffered the most. Woman from the upper and rich classes enjoyed almost privileges and benefits because of the position and wealth of their husband, son or father. Although there was no education imparted to women, the upper class women were taught the art of reading and writing which led them to enjoy a particular position in public life and also led them to be in power for many years. Women belonging to the middle class suffered the most because this class was not well of as the upper class and had no concessions as the lower class enjoyed. Generally, the middle class came from the high castes but their women could not enjoy the privileges of the rich while they could not get the concessions the law and customs offered to the lower castes. Naturally, women of this class sandwiched on every count. The prevailing custom of child marriage fettered their personality; the system of joint family reduced them to a subservient position while the practices of polygamy, concubinage, the denial of divorce and the prohibition of widow re-marriage brought them into precarious position. These customs, practices and systems led them to be neglected totally by their husband and abandoned them on very trivial offences. Widows of this class who wanted to avoid the miserable widowhood, the forced celibacy, dependence on others and continuous humiliation committed sati honorably with the dead body of their husband otherwise led a very humdrum life till the last. 4.5.3Female Slavery:
According to the information collected by the British officers regarding the system of slavery, the male slave was called Gulam and the female slave was called either Batkin or Kunbin. Female slaves were deployed and employed for house hold work as sweeping the floor, plastering it with cow dung or popularly known as mopping the floor, cleaning utensils, washing clothes, cleaning and cutting vegetables, grinding and pounding corn and making beds of their masters and mistresses. As per the survey conducted by Broughton, it seems that the female slaves of rick people in general and female slaves employed by Sindia enjoyed a very easy day today life. The female slaves of Sindia said that their daily routine was to attend on the wives of Sindia and rub the feat of old and elderly people when they retired for rest. They were left free to follow any course of action as they deemed fit during the night. Generally, rich people and nobles used to retain female slaves for sexual pleasure. Army officers, Prince and chiefs had so many female slaves in their courts; they trained in dancing, singing and recreational tactics and finally included them in their concubinage.
There were several female slaves, who were employed by the Government in their various departments as stables, department of elephants and camels, ammunition factories, department. The each department had general and specific duties which the female slaves were required to do them with some odd jobs whenever required by the government. Apart from this, there other female slaves who were hapless and fell into the hands of prostitutes, were to live as public prostitutes in the brothels run by the head prostitute or Naikini.
1) Explain Varna and caste system during Maratha period.
2) Discuss bhakti movement with help of effects of bhakti movement. 3) Explain Features of marriage system.
4) Write a short note on following
a) Status of Women in Maratha Period.
b) Marriage system during Maratha period
c) Family System