Topics: Malaria, Plasmodium, Health care Pages: 7 (1188 words) Published: April 28, 2015

Malaria is Malaria Is caused by infection with a single-celled nucleated protozoan of the genus Plasmodium. There are four species of Plasmodium that cause disease in humans: P. Vivax
P. falciparum
P. ovale
P. malariae
P. vivax and P. falciparum are the most prevalent, accounting for almost 90 percent of all cases worldwide.

Malaria life-cycle
Anopheles mosquito goes through asexual and sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction occurs in the human body and sexual reproduction takes place in the gut of the anopheles mosquito. Mosquitos are the final hosts of malaria whereas humans are the intermediate hosts Sources of information for malaria surveillance

Reports of confirmed malaria cases
Malaria inpatients
Malaria deaths
Data from household surveys on the prevalence of parasitaemia and intervention coverage Malaria household surveys
Multiple indicator surveys
Malaria indicator surveys

Malaria case definition
WHO recommends that suspected malaria cases be confirmed with diagnostic tests before treatment Sometimes malaria diagnostic tests cannot be performed due to the unavailability of testing material. Diagram

Suspected malaria case:
The person shows symptoms of malaria, but a laboratory investigation either has not been conducted yet, or has failed to find evidence of the parasite that causes malaria. A health-worker may suspect malaria basing on clinical symptoms.

Presumed malaria case
The person is suspected to be having malaria, and did not receive diagnostic test, but was treated for malaria. Confirmed malaria cases
A suspected case of malaria in which malaria parasite has been demonstrated by microscopy or RDT. Not malaria
A suspected case of malaria which turns out negative on diagnostic test. Malaria case detection
Passive case detection
Regular or periodic collection of data from case reports or register in health facilities where patients seek care at their discretion. These include:
Mobile health services at defined posts
Additional fixed health posts in malaria high-transmission areas Treatment in community-based programs at which patients seek are at their discretion Active surveillance
Involves searching for malaria cases and diagnostic testing at the community or household level by health workers on regular occasional visits. Targeted testing involves testing patients with malaria symptoms Mass testing is when everyone is tested

Proactive case detection
This is active detection done to fulfill gaps in passive case detection systems Reactive case detection
Active surveillance done in response to a confirmed case or cluster of cases linked to a defined population.

Malaria surveillance indicators
(i) Confirmed malaria case rate =

Number of malaria cases reported by health facilities over a given time to Mid-year resident population × 1000 Contributes to measuring trends of morbidity
Is the proxy of incidence rate in a defined area in a defined area during a defined period

Case rate allows the comparison of malaria burden between areas within a country, between countries, and over time. Case rate data is used in planning the allocation of resources.

(ii) Malaria test positivity rate
Calculated as:
Number of malaria cases with laboratory confirmation, reported by health facilities and by community health worker over time Total number of suspected malaria cases tested
Purpose of TPR
Monitor the impact on the malaria control program
Indicates the true malaria ceases resulting from improved quality of service and efficiency Completeness of reporting
Is assessed by the number of monthly reports received from health facilities in relation to the number of reports expected There should be a follow-up on missing reports and arrangements made that will facilitate future reporting It is important to encourage all health facilities to report malaria cases in timely manner Limitations of...

Malaria | MSMVCD (Marin / Sonoma Mosquito & Vector Control ... (n.d.). Retrieved from
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