Engineering Management Journal Vol. 5 No, 3 September 1993
A TUTORIAL ON QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT
A. Terry Bahill, University of Arizona, and William L, Chapman, Hughes Aircraft Co.
Quality function deployment (QFD) helps to introduce the
idea of quality in early phases of the design cycle and to
reevaluate quality considerations throughout the system's
entire life cycle. This article presents a tutorial example of using QFD to design a product. It shows which quality
controls in the manufacturing process are most important
to ensure customer satisfaction,
Over the past 40 years, the Japanese have developed many
techniques for improving quality in manufacturing processes. One of these, quality function deployment (QFD), is becoming very popular in both Japan and the United States.
QFD started in Japan in the late 1960s and is now used by
over half of Japan's major companies. It was introduced
in American automobile manufacturing companies in the
early 1980s; now many of our major corporations are using
it, including John Deere, Ford, Chrysler, General Motors,
Hughes Aircraft, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Martin
Marietta, Texas Instruments, Hewlett Packard, Westinghouse, and 3M, QFD is the jewel of the collection of tools now being called total quality management (TQM).
QFD strives to get the idea of quality introduced in
early phases of the design cycle and to reevaluate quality
issues throughout the product's entire life cycle. In most
implementations, QFD uses many matrices to discover
interrelationships between customer demands, product
characteristics, and manufacturing processes, as shown in
Exhibit 1. For example, the first QFD chart compares the
customer's demands to quality characteristics. The second
chart then investigates the relationships between these
quality characteristics and characteristics of the product.
The third chart subsequently examines the relationships
between these product characteristics and manufacturing
processes. Finally, the manufacturing processes are
compared to the quality controls that will be monitored
during manufacturing. An example will now be given for
each of these charts.
QFD presents the data in a user-friendly format. The
Japanese philosophy is that everyone participates in
This refereed tutorial was accepted by Ha! Rumsey,
Associate Editor, May 1993.
improving the product. Therefore, all system design tools
should be usable by the chief scientist with a doctor of philosophy degree and the janitor with a high school diploma. As a result, QFD tools are mathematically simple.
ToothBrite Inc.: A Heuristic Case Study
At this point, we are going to branch away from the
generic and focus on a specific example to illustrate the
QFD process. Assume that you are the chief executive
officer of ToothBrite Inc,, a major toothpaste manufacturer, About the Authors
A. Terry Bahill has been a professor of systems engineering at the University of Arizona in Tucson since 1984. He received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1975. His research
interests are in the fields of modeling physiological systems, eye-hand-head coordination, validation of expert systems,
concurrent engineering, total quality management, and systems design theory. He has tried to make the public appreciate
engineering research by applying his scientific findings to the sport of baseball.
He is the author of Bioengineering: Biomedical, Medical,
and Clinical Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 1981), Keep Your Eye on the Ball: The Science and Folklore of Baseball (with R. G. Watts; W. H. Freeman, 1990), Verifying and Validating
Personal Computer-Based Expert Systems (Prentice-Hall, 1991), Linear Systems Theory (with F. Szidarovszky; CRC Press,
1992), and Engineering Modeling and Design (with W. L.
Chapman and A. W, Wymore; CRC Press, 1992). He is a
References: Akao, Y. (ed.), Quality Function Deployment: Integrating
Customer Requirements into Product Design, Cambridge, MA: Productivity Press (1990).
Prentice Hall (1991).
Bossert, J. L., Quality Function Deployment: A Fractioner 's Approach, Milwaukee, WI: ASQC Quality Press
CRC Press (1992).
King, B., Better Designs in Half the Time, Implementing
QFD Quality Function Deployment in America, Methuen, MA: GOAL/QPC (1989).
Pugh, S., Total Design, New York: Addison-Wesley
QFDplus User Guide, QFDplus Software Program, Plymouth, MI: Ford Motor Co. (1991).
Re Velle, J, B,, The New Quality Technology, An Introduction to Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Taguchi Methods, Los Angeles: Hughes Aircraft Co. (1990).
Saaty, T, L,, The Analytic Hierarchy Process!, New York:
1990, 1991, and 1992).
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