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By Francisco-Yañez Sep 18, 2014 893 Words
Allison hernandez Yañez
Grupo 2 A0141117 3 September 2014
A) Why is Carbon important? What makes Carbon so unique?
1.-Because this element have four valence electrons
B) What are macromolecules? What is a monomer? What is a polymer? What is polymerization? 2.- A macromolecule is a very large molecule commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits. In biochemistry, the term is applied to the three conventional biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates),as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as lipids and macrocycles. The individual constituent molecules of polymeric macromolecules are called monomers (mono=single, meros=part C) Carbohydrates.  Structure, Function, Classification and Examples. A carbohydrate is an organic compound such as sugars, starches, celluloses and gums, that occurs in living tissues and food. It is important for nutrition since it can be broken down into energy by people or animals. Carbohydrates are divided into four groups:

Monosaccharides - These are simple carbohydrates, also called simple sugars, which are made of one sugar. They are broken down quickly by the body and are the building blocks for complex carbohydrates. Disaccharides - These are also simple carbohydrates that consist of two chemically-linked monosaccarides. They come in the form of lactose, maltose and sucrose. Oligosaccharides - These are complex carbohydrates that consist of three to ten sugars. They are rich in vitamins and minerals; and, because they are fiber-rich, they are slower to digest than a simple carbohydrate. Polysaccharides - These are also complex carbohydratges and are rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber; but, they have larger numbers of sugars than an oligosaccharide. Frucose

Lactose
Lactulose
Maltose
Maltulose
Sucrose
Galactose
D) Lipids: Structure, Function and Classification
any of a group of organic compounds consisting of the fats and other substances of similar properties: they are insoluble in water, soluble in fat solvents and alcohol, and greasy to the touch, and are important constituents of living cells Saturated

CH3(CH2)10CO2Hlauric acid45 ºC
CH3(CH2)12CO2Hmyristic acid55 ºC
CH3(CH2)14CO2Hpalmitic acid63 ºC
CH3(CH2)16CO2Hstearic acid69 ºC
CH3(CH2)18CO2Harachidic acid76 ºC
Unsaturated

CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7CO2Hpalmitoleic acid0 ºC
CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CO2Holeic acid13 ºC
CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7CO2Hlinoleic acid-5 ºC
CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7CO2Hlinolenic acid-11 ºC CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)4(CH2)2CO2Harachidonic acid-49 ºC
E) Nucleic Acids: Structure, Function and name the two types that are known. ucleic acids are polymeric macromolecules, or large biological molecules, essential for all known forms of life. Nucleic acids, which include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid), are made from monomers known as nucleotides. Deoxyribonucleic acid[edit]

Main article: DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid containing the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms (with the exception of RNA viruses). The DNA segments carrying this genetic information are called genes. Likewise, other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. Along with RNA and proteins, DNA is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds. These two strands run in opposite directions to each other and are, therefore, anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called nucleobases (informally, bases). It is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone that encodes information. This information is read using the genetic code, which specifies the sequence of the amino acids within proteins. The code is read by copying stretches of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA in a process called transcription. Within cells DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes. Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi, and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts.[1] In contrast, prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm. Within the chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed. Ribonucleic acid

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) functions in converting genetic information from genes into the amino acid sequences of proteins. The three universal types of RNA include transfer RNA (tRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Messenger RNA acts to carry genetic sequence information between DNA and ribosomes, directing protein synthesis. Ribosomal RNA is a major component of the ribosome, and catalyzes peptide bond formation. Transfer RNA serves as the carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesis, and is responsible for decoding the mRNA. In addition, many other classes of RNA are now known. F) Proteins:  Structure, Function

Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Proteins are essential components of the muscle, skin, and bones. Proteins and carbohydrates each provide 4 calories of energy per gram, whereas fats provide 9 calories per gram.

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