A literature review
Statement of authorship
I certify that this literature review is my own work and contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any degree or diploma in any institute, college or university. Moreover, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person, except where due reference is made in the text of the literature review.
Date: 20th of September 2008
TABLE OF CONTENT
Overview of the topic
Background and Definition
Definition of literature review
Literature search, methodology used
Description of sub-topics
SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEWED
A REVIEW OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT
Effectiveness of celebrity endorsement
Association to celebrity endorsement
Perception of association
Attitudes towards the endorser
Positive or negative effects of celebrity endorsement
Implications for practitioners
Implications for further research
Overview of the topic
Over the past few years the involvement of celebrity chefs in advertising campaigns has increased and it has become a part of the advertising strategy for retail and TV productions alike. By gathering information about this subject I have reviewed in general what celebrity endorsement was and how it has been used. This review should bring all relevant facts about the subject and facilitate practitioners and highlight areas for further research. In short celebrity endorsement is about endorsing products with the help from a celebrity. Consumer association towards a celebrity endorsed produced increases their purchase intention as many see the celebrity as a role model. However, it is important that the consumer can identify with the celebrity and that the celebrity´s image fits with the produced he or she endorses, only then will celebrity backing be an effective advertising strategy. 1.2.
Background and Definition
Nowadays, celebrities are used in advertising in almost every context. Athletes such as Michael Ballack (Adidas) or Tiger Woods (Rolex) or models such as Cindy Crawford (Omega) or Heidi Klum (Katjes) endorse several products. These celebrities act as a spokesperson in order to advertise and promote products (Kambitsis et al., 2002). Celebrities can create more positive responses towards advertising and greater purchase intentions than non-celebrity endorsers (Byrne et al., 2003). Using celebrity as an endorser for a given product can either be positive or negative for a company/brand. A campaign that turned out successfully was the campaign with Jamie Oliver as an endorser for the supermarket chain J. Sainsbury. The successful format of the TV production “The naked chef” provided an ideal platform to use for the advertising campaign within a context relevant for J. Sainsbury´s desire (Byrne, 2003). An example of a campaign that did not turn out successful was when J. Sainsbury used the actor John Cleese in the “value to shout about” campaign in 1998. Employees and customers alike felt that Cleese was not the right personality to personify the supermarket's quality image (Whitehead, 2003).
In the literature there are two different definitions of celebrity endorsers used. The definitions used are: “A celebrity endorser is an individual who is known to the public (actor, sports figure, entertainer, etc.) for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed”. (Friedman, 1979, p. 63)
“Any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses the...
References: Atkin, Ch. and Block, M. (1983). Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsers. Journal of Advertising Research, 23 (1), 57-61
Byrne, A., Whitehead, M. and Breen, S. (2003). The naked truth of celebrity endorsement. British food Journal, 105 (4/5), 288-296.
Charbonneau, J. And Garland, R. (2005). Talent, looks or brains? New Zealand advertising practitioners´ views on celebrity and athlete endorsers. Marketing Bulletin, 16, 1-10.
Choi, S.M., Wei-Na, L. and Hee-Jung, K. (2005). Lessons from rich and famous. Journal of Advertising, 34 (2), 85-98.
Cronley, M.L., Kardes, F.R., Goddard, P. and Houghyon, D.C. (1999). Endorsing products for money: The role of the correspondence bias in celebrity advertising. Advances in consumer research, 26 (1), 627-631.
Daneshvary, R. and Schwer, R.K. (2000). The association endorsement and consumers´ intention to purchase. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17 (3), 203-213.
La Eerie, C. and Sejung, M.C. (2005). The importance of perceived endorser credibility in South Korean advertising. Journal of current issues & research advertising, 21 (2), 67-81.
Friedman, H.H. and Friedman, L. (1979). Endorser effectiveness by product type. Journal of advertising research, 19 85), 63-71.
Hsu, C-K. and McDonald, D. (2002). An examination on multiple celebrity endorsement in advertising. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 11 (1), 19-29.
Kahle, L.R. and Homer, P.M. (1985). Physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser: A social adaptation perspective. Journal of consumer research, 11 (4), 954.
Kamins, M.A. (1989). Celebrity and noncelebrity advertising in a two-sided context. Journal of Advertising Research, 29 (3), 34.
Martin, J.H. (1996). Is the athlete´s sport important when picking an athlete to endorse a nonsport product? Journal of consumer marketing, 13 (6), 28-43.
McCracken, G. (1989). Who is the Celebrity Endorser? Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process. Journal of consumer research, 16 (3), 310-321.
Miciak, A.R. and Shanklin, W.L. (1994). Choosing celebrity endorsers. Marketing Management, 3 (3), 50-59.
Sanbonmatsu, D.M. and Kardes, F.R. (1988). The effects of physiological arousal on information processing and persuasion. Journal of consumer research, 15 (3), 379.
Stafford, M.R., Spears, N.E. and Chung-Kue, H. (2003). Celebrity images in magazine advertisements: An application of the visual rhetoric model. Journal of current issues & research in advertising, 25 (2), 13-20.
Till, B.D. (1998). Using celebrity endorsers effectively: lessons from associative learning. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 7 (5), 400-409.
Till, B.D. and Busler, M. (1998). Matching products with attractiveness versus expertise. Jopurnal of Consumer Marketing, 15 (6), 576-586.
Till, B.D. and Shimp, T.A. (1998). Endorsers in advertising: the case of negative celebrity information. Journal of advertising, 27 (1), 67-82.
Tripp, C., Jensen, T.D. and Carlson, L. (1994). The effects of multiple product endorsement by celebrities on consumers´ attitudes and intention. Journal of consumer research, 20 (4), 535-547.
Hart, C. (1998). Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science, Research imagination. 1:th ed. London : SAGE Publications ltd.
Zinkmund, W.G. (2000). Business research methods. 6:th ed. Forth Worth: Harcourt Colledge Publishers.
Retrieved September 16th, 2008, from
Please join StudyMode to read the full document