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Literature Review Caribbean Studies 2015 Cyberbullying

By Rashard-Alexander Mar 26, 2015 811 Words

Literature Review

Cyberbullying is considered to be more severe than traditional bullying, as it can happen online, this often means that unlike physical bullying it can be repeated constantly and as such suicidal ideation occurs. According to Jama Pediatrics, suicidal thoughts among teens have a stronger relation to cyberbullying than traditional bullying. Additionally, research conducted in the Netherlands the study conducted showed that female victims are more likely to commit suicide immediately while male victims seem to give into the idea of suicidal ideation only after prolonged episodes of bullying. Suicides linked to bullying have increased in the past decade, but according to John C. Le Blanche, Professor at Dalhousie University, even with the increase in cyberbullying-related suicide the victims being bullied were already suffering from depression and other mental illnesses. Furthermore, he said in an interview with C.B.C news that “Cyberbullying is a modern manifestation of traditional bullying, it is only one of the many factors related to suicidal ideation. In addition he said that victims of cyberbullying are often victims of traditional bullying as well. Cyberbullying and its impact on young people’s emotional health by Helen Crowe identifies emotional health problems as a consequence of bullying. Lack of acceptance from peers results in loneliness and isolation. As a result of this social withdrawal and low self- esteem arises as a consequence. Also it is said that bullies are at a higher risk than the victims themselves. They are said to be more prone to succumb to maladaptive and antisocial behaviours such as alcoholism and drug abuse. Jennifer N Claude Family Physician explained that cyberbullying victims are more likely to have emotional distress which manifests itself in the form of anxiety depression unhappiness and poor sleep. In addition to which victims feel the need to conceal the fact that they are being bullied because of embarrassment and the fear of being bullied again. She explained that victims tend to be anxious and show a lack of confidence in themselves; they also become quieter in class and if bullying persists can become an obstacle in the academic success of the child. Manuel Gamez-Gaudix, Ph. D of the University of Duesto explained in her article entitled Teenage Victims of cyberbullying at higher risk for psychological and behavioural health problems that understanding the link between cyberbullying and health behaviours is critical. The study conducted by the university showed that although a number of adolescents are both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying , victims are more vulnerable to psychological health problems. Robert D. Sege, M.D , Ph.D Professor at Boston University however explained that cyberbullying victims are more likely to portray mal-adaptive behaviours, he also said that victims are more apt to suffer from depression and other psychological disorders such as ant-social behaviours etc. A study conducted by Am J public health in 2012 focused on the psychological impact of cyberbullying on victims and the results revealed that bullying victimization both school and cyber had an increased likelihood of psychological distress especially depression suicidal ideation as well as self-inflicted injury and suicide attempts. In addition the study also showed that victims who were more likely to have psychological distress are those who are cyberbullied as well as bulled in school The Cyberbullying research centre said that victims are more likely to suffer from low self esteem. A recent study however conducted by the US National Institute of Health explained that the reason why cyber victims showed more signs of depression and low self esteem is because cyberbullying is more relentless frightening and discouraging especially if the bully is anonymous, also this can be because the internet stores information and as such bullies can commit these acts repeatedly which can cause low levels of self-esteem. Cyberbullies on the other hand because of previously being a bully themselves can cause low self-esteem, also it is said by many researchers that most cyberbullies and victims come from broken homes where biological parents are absent. said in an article that victims of cyberbullying are more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol. However an article from explained that cyberbullying is associated with elevated levels of binge drinking and marijuana use as well as symptoms of depression, substance abuse and addiction is likely to develop. The reason for this according to the article is that cyber victims are at a higher risk of psychological and behavioural problems. The theory developed by the researchers is that victims are usually unable to properly handle the experience of being cyberbullied while cyberbullies themselves are more likely to become drunk and frequently smoke cigarettes as a coping mechanism.

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